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Chapter 2-Section4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 2-Section4

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  1. Chapter 2-Section4 River dynasties in China

  2. Still in existence today • Mesopotamia-gone! • Ancient Egypt-history! • Indus valley-just a memory! • Chinese civilization still thrives today

  3. Natural barriers • Rivers • Oceans • Mountains • All serve to isolate China

  4. Two major rivers • Huang He (Yellow river) • Chang Jiang(Yangtze) • Yellow river is most polluted in the world today • LOESS-yellow colored silt deposited by yellow river

  5. Challenges of this location • Yellow river flooding can be disastrous-wiping out whole villages at a time • People had to supply all they needed-no trade • Invaders attacked again and again • Only 10% of land good for farming

  6. Civilization begins • Fossil remains found dating to 1.7 million years ago • Near Beijing-Homo-erectus skeleton found • Called”Peking Man” • Area settled 500,000 years ago

  7. First Dynasty • XIA (say shy-ah) Dynasty • Leader- Yu • Engineer • Mathematician • Flood controller

  8. Second Dynasty • Shang dynasty 1700B.C.-1027B.C. • First written records • Elaborate palaces • Magnificent tombs

  9. Are we in Egypt? • Wife of a king,her tomb contained: • 16 other people • 6 dogs • 460 bronze items • 750 jade items • 7000 shells

  10. Early city • Anyang-capital of Shang dynasty • Built of wood • Earthen walls • Upper-class-inside • Lower-class-outside • Constant wars-led to need for protection

  11. Culture develops • Not Chinese?- then you must be a barbarian! • Group>individual • Respect your elders! • Family main focus • Elder men control land/decisions • Women inferior (finally!) • Arranged marriages • Obey your father

  12. Classes of people • Sharp divide between upper/lower • Ancestors not gods, but helpful spirits • Helped you consult w/SHANG DI • Oracle bones

  13. Language • Understood by all • You could read it but not know how to write it • Many characters for every sound • If you knew 1500 symbols, you were barely literate! • Smart? Then you know at least 10,000 characters! • Writing usually reserved for the nobles • Peasants,not so much

  14. “ Mandate of heaven” • Shang dynasty ends, replaced by Zhou dynasty • New dynasties from now on will take over by saying,” our royal authority comes from heaven.” • This will become how all Chinese people will see government

  15. “ Dynastic Cycle” • Explains: • Rise • Decline • Replacement • This will apply to all dynasties

  16. Zhou Dynasty • 1027B.C.-256B.C. • Empire now very large • Zhou has to give control to the nobles • Rise of feudalism

  17. Feudalism • King • Gives land to noble/lord • Peasants(who else?) work the land • Nobles then owe loyalty,military service to the king • Nobles/lords become stronger • Become less dependent on king • Begin to fight for more power/land

  18. Zhou technology • Roads/canals • Coins-make trade much easier • Furnaces hot enough to make iron • Iron makes weapons/farming tools better

  19. Zhou dynasty in decline • Lords fighting all the time for more power/land • Values collapse • They begin to lose power • Cycle ends

  20. Things to remember • This civilization still exists! • Complex language • Iron • Coins • Mandate of heaven