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INMACULADA MARTÍNEZ ZARZOSO Universitat Jaume I and Georg-August Universitaet LAURA MARQUEZ-RAMOS Universitat Jaume I Gordon Wilmsmeier UN-ECLAC. trade facilitation, transport costs and Maritime imports in latin america. Arnold Shain Seminar 26 June 2013, Antwerp. The context.

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trade facilitation transport costs and maritime imports in latin america

INMACULADA MARTÍNEZ ZARZOSO

UniversitatJaume I and Georg-August Universitaet

LAURA MARQUEZ-RAMOS

UniversitatJaume I

Gordon Wilmsmeier

UN-ECLAC

trade facilitation, transport costs and Maritime imports in latinamerica

Arnold Shain Seminar 26 June 2013, Antwerp

the context
The context
  • Latin American containerised trade
  • Continued economic expansion and trade
  • Challenges in trade facilitation
    • Excessive time delays
    • Bureaucratic requirements for varying goods traded
    • Role of institutional trade barriers
research question
Research question

What are repercussions from maritime transport infrastructure development and trade facilitation in the structure of maritime transport costs, and hence, on bilateral trade?

trade facilitation
Trade facilitation
  • WTO definition: “the simplification and harmonization of international trade procedures””
  • Wilson, Mann and Otsuki (2003, 2005) define four measures
    • Port efficiency
    • Customs environment
    • Regulatory environment
    • E-business usage
modelling approaches
Modelling approaches
  • Gravity model of trade
    • Mann and Otsuki (2003, 2005) for the Asia-Pacific region
    • Soloaga, Wilson and Mejía (2006) on Mexican competitiveness
    • Djankov, Freund and Pham (2006) used the World Bank’s Doing Business Database focusing only on effects of time delays in the exporting country
    • Nordas, Pinali and Grosso (2006) discuss how time delays affect the probability to export and the export volumes for imports from Japan, Australia and the United Kingdom.
    • Persson (2007) studied effect of time delays and transaction costs on trade flows using a sample selection approach and focussing on the specific effects for each of the six groups of ACP countries negotiating Economic Partnership agreements with the EU.
modelling approaches1
Modelling approaches
  • Computable general equilibrium model to estimate the effect of a composite index of trade facilitation on trade flows
    • UNCTAD, 2001
    • OECD, 2003
    • Dennis, 2006
    • Decreux and Fontagne, 2006
trade facilitation and tariffs
Trade facilitation and tariffs

Márquez-Ramos, Martínez-Zarzoso and Suárez-Burguet (2011) compare different types of trade barriers in both developed and developing countries,

Trade facilitation variables and policy trade barriers, as tariff peaks and tariff escalation remain important issues for developing countries, and a “tariff bias” exists against developing countries (Márquez-Ramos et al, 2011).

They show that trade facilitation variables are, in relative terms, more important than tariffs.

 increasing trade facilitation would lead to an increase in world trade, although this increase would not be the same in all countries as, by running simulations

The present paper mainly differs from existing trade-facilitation literature in that it focus on imports and analyses the effect of trade facilitation on both transport costs and bilateral trade with Latin America.

slide8
Data

Data for disaggregated maritime exports from 181 countries to 9 Latin American countries

Time period 2000-2006

LA countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Each observation corresponds to a given product, k (SITC code 5 digit).

data transport cost model
Data: Transport cost model
  • The dependent variable in the transport cost model is the ad-valorem freight rate between the country of origin and the country of destination.
  • Product value (USD/Kg):
  • Volume exported:
    • Total weight in tonnes of the trade flows shipped to each specific country of destination.
  • Port container throughput: Iportv
  • Distance: Dist
  • Number of days (documents) to import and export: ET
    • from the World Bank’s Doing Business (2006) database
data gravity model
Data: Gravity model
  • Dependent variable in the gravity model is imports between the country of origin and the country of destination.
    • amount in current dollars that importers have to pay for the products at free on board (fob) prices.
  • Gross domestic product (GDP) of the importer and exporter countries
  • Gross domestic product per capita in both countries
  • Transport costs
  • Distance.
  • Dummies:
    • Common language
    • Common border
model specification
Model specification

where:

ln indicate natural logarithms,

uvijkt denotes the value per weight ratio (USD/ton) of product k in year t,

qijkt is the volume of transaction between countries i (exporter) and j (importer) of product k in year t,

iportvjt and eportvit denote total port throughput or maritime transport infrastructure in the importing and exporting countries in year t,

distij denotes the maritime distance between main ports in country i and j,

Tjtand Tit the average number of days (documents) needed in the importer and the exporter country to trade a product.

δkt=sectoral*time dummies at one digit SITC classification, SITC2-SITC8

linking trade costs to a simple gravity equation
Linking trade costs to a simple gravity equation

where lnMijkt is the log of the value of imports of product k into country j from country i in period t.

GDPjt is the value of gross domestic product for importer j in period t and GDPit that of exporter i in the same period, distij is the distance between each pair of trading partners and T denote trade facilitation variables.

εijkt is a composite error term of unobservable effects.

A similar set of country-pair, time and sectoral dummies as in equation (1) is added.

methodology
Methodology

Estimation of a transport costs model and a gravity equation of trade

Using panel data techniques that allow controlling for country, sectoral and time unobserved heterogeneity.

conclusions
Conclusions

Trade facilitation (time and documents required to trade) is considered as determinants of transport costs

Recent institutional trade conflicts among Latin American partners point in evidence the need of empirical research to provide light on the role of institutional trade barriers, or trade facilitation procedures, when trading with Latin America

conclusions cont d
Conclusions (cont’d)

Results show that time delays are a more important trade barrier to trade with Latin American countries than bureaucratic procedures

Natural trade barriers (transport costs) are of higher importance than institutional trade barriers established by Latin American countries (trade facilitation procedures) when trading with this developing region

Further research needed with disaggregated data for a better understanding of the role of trade facilitation procedures

questions

Questions?

INMACULADA MARTÍNEZ ZARZOSO

Universitat Jaume I and Georg-August Universitaet

LAURA MARQUEZ-RAMOS

Universitat Jaume I

Gordon Wilmsmeier

UN-ECLAC