BELL QUIZ: USE PAGES 882-887 • How and why did the U.S. support France’s Vietnam war efforts? • In what year did the U.S. begin supporting France in Vietnam? • Why did the U.S. support canceling the 1956 unified elections in Vietnam? • What happened to Diem and his regime on November 1, 1963? • How did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution lead to greater U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War?
BELL QUIZ ANSWERS • The U.S. started sending economic aid to France in 1950 ‘cause they believed all of Asia would fall to communism if Vietnam fell. • 1950 • The U.S. knew that Diem would lose and Ho Chi Minh would win. • The U.S. lead a coup against him and had him assassinated. • The Tonkin Gulf Resolution allowed Pres. Johnson to send troops to Vietnam without congressional approval or declaration of war.
Objectives: TLW… • Summarize Vietnam’s history as a French colony and its struggle for independence. • Examine how the U.S. became involved in the Vietnam conflict. • Describe the expansion of U.S. military involvement under President Johnson.
THEMES • EXPANDING DEMOCRACY: America’s mission in Vietnam was to halt the spread of communism-a threat of democracy. 2) CONSTITUTIONAL CONCERNS: Among the constitutional issues of the Vietnam War era were the president’s powers as commander in chief and First Amendment rights. Both the Tonkin Gulf Resolution and the Pentagon Papers sparked controversy.
THEMES 3) CIVIL RIGHTS: Initially, mainstream civil rights leaders were reluctant to criticize the Vietnam War, fearing they would jeopardize President Johnson’s support for their cause. When the war threatened Great Society reforms, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders voiced their opposition.
THEMES 4) THE AMERICAN DREAM: In the 1960’s, members of the counterculture rejected the American dream and chose to drop out of mainstream society. Hippies sought to redefine the American dream by creating a society based on love. 5) MEDIA: The media can sway public opinion and dictate events.
Anticipation Guide INSTRUCTIONS: Before reading, mark whether or not you agree with each statement. After reading, fill in the page number where you found the answer to each statement, tell whether or not you were right, and reflect upon what you found.
THE VIETMINH vs. FRANCE * Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnamese independence from ALL foreign rule. • Ho forms the Vietminh, a military organization, to fight for independence against foreign rule. • Ho vows to liberate South Vietnam from French rule and oppression.
U.S. Unofficial Involvement in Vietnam • In 1950 President Truman begins to provide economic aide to France in Vietnam to defeat the Vietminh. • $15 million sent in 1950. • Spent $1 Billion over between 1951-1954 • Domino Theory=If Vietnam falls to communism then all other Asian countries will also fall. Therefore, the U.S. must take a stand against communism in Vietnam.
The French Lose: Surprise, Surprise! • In May of 1954 the French are surrounded and defeated by the Vietminh in the northern city of Dien Bien Phu. • Geneva Accords=1) Peace agreement between the Vietminh and South Vietnam that divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel. 2) France agreed to permanently pull out of Vietnam. 3) Free elections will be held in 1956 to choose a leader for a newly united Vietnam.
South Vietnamese Leadership • The U.S. throws its support into Ngo Dinh Diem, an anti-communist. • Just prior to the 1956 unifying elections the U.S. can see that Diem will not win. Ho Chi Minh will win easily. As a result, Diem and the U.S. call off the elections! • Diem proves to be an incompetent and corrupt leader of South Vietnam
Vietcong and the Ho Chi Minh Trail • In 1957 a communist group was formed in South Vietnam to oppose Diem and the U.S.=Vietcong. • The Vietcong were organized in to cells and waged guerilla (terrorist) type warfare. • In 1959 they were successful in assassinating 1,200 of Diem’s government officials.
VIETCONG/HO CHI MINH TRAIL • In 1960 Ho Chi Minh supported the Vietcong and began supplying them weapons and supplies by way of paths running through Laos and Cambodia. • U.S. is forced to fight 2 enemies: 1) Vietcong=guerillas. 2) North Vietnam Army (NVA)=official army of North Vietnam.
VIETCONG CODE OF BEHAVIOR • When the Vietcong entered a village they were to obey a strict code of behavior. All members were issued with a series of 'directives'. These included:" (1) Not to do what is likely to damage the land and crops or spoil the houses and belongings of the people; (2) Not to insist on buying or borrowing what the people are not willing to sell or lend; (3) Never to break our word; (4) Not to do or speak what is likely to make people believe that we hold them in contempt; (5) To help them in their daily work (harvesting, fetching firewood, carrying water, sewing, etc.)."
JFK and SOUTH VIETNAM • JFk wins the 1960 election and inherits the Vietnam conflict. • JFK wants to NOT look soft on communism so he sends more economic aid to Diem (“sink or swim with him”) and several thousand military advisors to train the South Vietnamese army. • By 1963, JFK has sent 16,000 military personnel to Vietnam to protect the military advisors. • JFk is seriously considering pulling completely out of Vietnam if South Vietnam can show they can soundly govern themselves.
Instability of South Vietnamese Gov’t • Diem became very unpopular with the South Vietnamese citizens because…1) Private property was confiscated and villagers were corralled into protected areas. 2) government corruption. 3) Persecution, imprisonment, and killing of Buddhist monks; destruction of Buddhist temples=monks burning selves in streets in protest.
OVERTHROW of DIEM REGIME • In order for the U.S. to stay and help South Vietnam there had to be political order=Diem had to go! • On November 1, 1963 the U.S. organizes a coup to oust Diem from office. In the process Diem is Assassinated. • 2 Weeks later JFK is assassinated and instead of leaving Vietnam the U.S. will get involved deeper.
PRESIDENT LYNDON B. JOHNSON • President Johnson takes over for JFK and promises to not escalate the war. • In reference to Vietnam he said “It’s their war.” And “I will not send American boys to Vietnam to do what Asian boys should do for themselves.” • But “If I…let the communist take over South Vietnam then…my nation would be seen as an appeaser and we would…find it impossible to accomplish anything…anywhere on the globe.”
TONKIN GULF RESOLUTION • LBJ had authorized secret raids to be conducted into North Vietnam. In response to the raids the North Vietnamese fire a torpedo at the USS MADDOX in the Gulf of Tonkin. • Torpedoes miss, but the U.S. returns fire and sinks the North Vietnamese boat. • LBJ gets congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution on August 7, 1964=allows the U.S. to take military action against any armed attack without having to officially declare war.
RESULT OF TONKIN GULF RESOLUTION • LBJ orders “Operation Rolling Thunder” in February 1965=bombing of North Vietnam by the Air Force. We dropped more bombs in the first month than we did in all of WWII. (ordered to not bomb any North Vietnam ports or anywhere near China.) • In March the first American combat troops arrived in South Vietnam. • By June 50,000 U.S. soldiers were fighting the Vietcong.
Exit Slip: Answer the questions and turn in before leaving class today 1) How AND why did the U.S. support France’s Vietnam War efforts? 2) Why did the U.S. support canceling elections? 3) Why was the Diem regime unpopular? 4) How did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution lead to greater involvement in the Vietnam War? 5) Do you think Congress was justified in passing the Tonkin Gulf Resolution? Use details from the text to support your answer.