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Chapters 47, 48, and 49. Bell Ringer, 8/14. TURN IN ANY WORK THAT YOU ARE MISSING Pick up your Exit Slips on the back lab table Answer the following question on your bell ringer: Explain the difference between a hypothesis and a guess. Bell Ringer, 8/15.

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bell ringer 8 14
Bell Ringer, 8/14
  • Pick up your Exit Slips on the back lab table
  • Answer the following question on your bell ringer:
    • Explain the difference between a hypothesis and a guess.
bell ringer 8 15
Bell Ringer, 8/15
  • Retrieve your EXIT SLIPS from the back lab table
  • Answer the following questions:
    • In one food chain, a cat eats a mouse, which ate some cheese. In another food chain, a lion eats a meercat that ate some desert grass.
      • Are the cat and the lion on the same trophic level? Defend your answer.
      • What type of CONSUMER OR PRODUCER is each organism in the above food chains?
detritivores vs decomposers
Detritivores vs. Decomposers
  • The two groups are very, very similar
  • DETRITIVORES help break organic wastes into smaller pieces, but they DO NOT actually get rid of it
  • DECOMPOSERS break organic wastes back into its basic nutrients and return it to the environment
  • DETRITIVORES can ingest clumps of matter while DECOMPOSERS cannot
ecosystems an overview

Ecosystems: an overview

(Chapter 47.1-2)

what is an ecosystem
What is an ecosystem?
  • An array of organisms and a physical environment, all interacting through a one-way flow of energy and cycling of nutrients
  • Ecosystems run on energy
    • Primary producers: Capture energy from a non-living source (typically sunlight)
    • Consumers: Get energy from feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of producers and other consumers
primary producers
Primary Producers
  • Main primary producers: Plants and photoplankton
  • Autotroph: Produces its own food from inorganic substances
  • Capture energy from the sun (photosynthesis) or create energy from chemicals (chemoautotrophs)
primary producers1
Primary Producers

Common misconception: All plants are autotrophs


  • Heterotroph: Consumers other organisms to get energy
  • Can be classified based on their diets
    • Herbivores: Eat plants
    • Carnivores: Eat the flesh of animals
    • Parasites: Live inside or on a living host and feed on its tissues
    • Omnivores: Eat both plant and animal materials
    • Detritivores: Eat small particles of organic matter (detritus)
    • Decomposers: Eat organic wastes and remains
flow in an ecosystem
Flow in an Ecosystem
  • Energy flow in an ecosystem only goes ONE WAY
    • Light capturelivingcomponentsphysical environment
    • Breaking down food in the ecosystem gives off heat
    • Heat cannot be recycled, making this a one-way process
flow in an ecosystem1
Flow in an Ecosystem
  • Many nutrients cycle in an ecosystem
    • Producers take up nutrients (N, H, O, C) from inorganic sources (air, water)
    • Nutrients move into consumers as they eat the producers
    • After organisms die, decomposition returns nutrients to environment
    • Producers pick them up again

trophic levels
Trophic Levels
  • Trophic level: One level in the hierarchy of feeding relationship present in all ecosystems
    • When an organism eats another, this energy transfers up to the next trophic level
    • All organisms in a trophic level are

the same number of transfers

away from the energy input into

that system

Same trophic level


Can one organism be on one trophic level in one food chain and a different trophic level in another?

are they on the same trophic level
Are they on the same trophic level?
  • A bird eating a worm and a Venus fly trap catching a fly
  • A cow eating grass and a cat eating a mouse
  • A human eating a steak and a lion eating an antelope
  • A mouse eating a piece of cheese and another mouse eating some kudzu
  • A bacteria and fungi breaking down the same weasel
exit slip 8 14
Exit Slip 8/14
  • Draw and label FOUR trophic levels. Include each type of PRODUCER or type of consumer.
food chains
Food Chains
  • Sequence of steps by which some energy captured by primary producers is transferred to organisms as successively higher trophic levels
  • Simple way to think about who eats who in an ecosystem
  • More than one per ecosystem; often complex
name those trophic levels
Name those trophic levels!
  • AcornSquirrelHawk
  • GrassBunnyFoxBear
  • FlowerSheepWolfLionFungi
  • Star flowersFairiesUnicornsUnicorn ticks

THE POINT: The levels are always named the same way, even in a ridiculous example!

food webs
Food Webs
  • Diagram that illustrates trophic interactions among species in a particular ecosystem
  • Includes multiple connecting food chains
food webs1
Food Webs
  • Detrital food chain: Energy stored in producers flows to detritivores
    • Majority of land ecosystems
    • Small amounts of plant matter get eaten, but far more becomes detritus (ex. Leaves falling from trees in fall)
  • Grazing food chain: Energy stored in producer tissues flows to herbivores
    • Predominate aquatic food chains
    • Zooplankton (primary consumer) consumes most of the primary producer so very little ends up as detritus
food webs2
Food Webs
  • Ecologists use food webs to predict how species will relate to one another
  • On average, each species in a food web is only two links away from another
    • “Everything is linked to everything else.” –Neo Martinez
    • Thus, the extinction of any species in a food web may have an impact on MANY other species
energy transfer
Energy Transfer
  • Energy captured by producers passes through NO MORE than five trophic levels, even in complex ecosystems
    • Energy is limited
    • Rule of 10: Only 10% of energy is passed up to the next trophic level
    • Ex. Bears vs. bunnies
energy transfer1
Energy Transfer
  • Food chains are shorter where conditions vary widely over time
  • Food chains are longer where conditions are stable (ex. Ocean depths)
you try it
You try it!
  • Draw a food chain. Include:
    • Primary producer
    • Primary consumer
    • Secondary consumer
    • Tertiary consumer
    • Quaternary consumer
    • You food chain should be CREATIVE and NEATLY LABELED
    • Have fun!
exit slip 8 13
Exit Slip 8/13
  • Create a food chain for an aquatic environment. Include AT LEAST four trophic levels. Label each trophic level and tell whether the organism is a PRODUCER or a CONSUMER
bell ringer 8 20
Bell Ringer, 8/20
  • Get your EXIT SLIP and ECOSYSTEM DRAWING from the second lab table
  • On your bell ringer sheet, fill in the chart on the white board.
energy capture and storage
Energy Capture and Storage
  • Primary Production: Rate at which producers capture and store energy
  • Gross Primary Production: Amount of energy captured by ALL producers in an ecosystem
  • Net Primary Production: Portion of energy that producers invest in growth and reproduction (rather than maintenance)
energy capture and storage1
Energy Capture and Storage

If three plants each capture and store 30 joules of energy and invest 20 joules in growth and reproduction…

  • What is their gross primary production?
  • What is their net primary production?
energy capture and storage2
Energy Capture and Storage

If 10 plants capture 100 joules of energy each and invest 50 joules of energy in maintenance each…

  • What is their gross primary production?
  • What is their net primary production?
energy capture and storage3
Energy Capture and Storage
  • Factors that affect primary production:
    • Temperature
    • Availability of water
    • Availability of nutrients
  • Net primary production on land is higher, but there are more oceans so they contribute nearly half of earth’s global net primary productivity
ecological pyramids
Ecological Pyramids
  • Show the trophic structure of an ecosystem
  • Biomass pyramid: Shows the dry weight of all the organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem
    • Usually primary producers are on bottom (more grass than bears)
    • Exception: Aquatic ecosystems where primary producers reproduce quickly (single-celled protists)
ecological pyramids1
Ecological Pyramids
  • Energy pyramid: Shows how the amount of USABLE energy in an ecosystem diminishes as it is transferred through an ecosystem
    • Primary producers on base (capture sunlight)
    • Energy diminishes as you move up the pyramid
    • Pyramids are always “right side up”
ecological efficiency
Ecological Efficiency
  • Factors that influence the efficiency of transfer:
    • Consumers don’t use all their energy to build biomass
      • Some energy is lost as heat
    • Not all biomass can be consumed by consumers
      • Herbivores: Can’t break down ligand and cellulose
      • Hair, feathers, bones, external skeletons, and fur are usually indigestible
ecological efficiency1
Ecological Efficiency
  • Aquatic ecosystems usually have higher efficiency than land ecosystems
    • Algae lack ligin
    • Higher proportion of ectotherms
      • Ectotherms: “Cold blooded” animals that get their body heat from external sources
      • Don’t lose as much heat as endotherms (“warm blooded” animals that maintain their body temperature internally)
biological magnification
Biological Magnification
  • Process by which a chemical that degrades slowly or not at all becomes increasingly concentrated in tissues of organisms as it moves up a food chain
  • Example: DDT in eagles
now you try it
Now you try it!
  • For the ecosystem that you drew on Friday…
    • Make an ecosystem chart
    • Make a biomass pyramid
    • Make an energy pyramid
exit slip 8 19
Exit Slip, 8/19
  • Explain why aquatic ecosystems tend to have higher efficiency than land ecosystems.
  • What is the difference between an energy pyramid and a biomass pyramid? Draw an example of each.
biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical cycles

Chapter 47.5-.10

bell ringer 8 22
Bell Ringer, 8/22
  • Get out your lab handouts.
  • Find your NEW SEAT. Your name will be written in ORANGE MARKER.
  • Tear off (and throw away!) the old taped name tags. You are free from their tyranny!!!
  • On your bell ringer paper, answer the following questions.
    • Explain the concept of biological magnification.
    • What factors influence the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels?
bell ringer 8 23
Bell Ringer, 8/23
  • Define each of the following: Precipitation, condensation, transpiration, evaporation
  • Yes, I know you haven’t had these notes yet. Do your best!
introductory video
Introductory Video
  • Watch the video; answer the questions 
what is a biogeochemical cycle
What is a biogeochemical cycle?
  • An essential element moves from one or more nonliving environmental reservoirs, through living organisms, then back to the reservoirs
    • N, O, H, C, P, water all cycle
    • Move into organic components through primary producers

Nonliving environmental reserves


Rocks and


Living Organisms

Seawater and


the water cycle
The Water Cycle
  • Most of the Earth’s water is held in the oceans
  • Sunlight drives evaporation (conversion of water to vapor)
    • Transpiration: Evaporation from the leaves of plants
  • Cool upper layers of the atmosphere cause water to condense
    • Condensation: Conversion of vapor to liquid
  • Water returns to earth through precipitation
    • Precipitation: Fall of water to earth
the water cycle1
The Water Cycle
  • Watershed: Area from which all precipitation drains into a specific waterway
    • Can be small (valley feeding a stream)
    • Can be VERY large (Mississippi River Valley, which occupies 41% of the continental US)
the water cycle2
The Water Cycle
  • Most precipitation falling into a watershed seeps into the ground
    • Aquifers: Permeable rock layers that hold water
    • Groundwater: Water held in soil and aquifers
  • When soil become saturated, water becomes runoff
    • Runoff: Water that flows over the ground into streams
water cycle video
Water Cycle Video
  • Write the following on an index card:
    • Run off
    • Evaporation
    • Condensation
    • Precipitation
    • Hold up the appropriate card in the video
bell ringer 8 26
Bell Ringer, 8/26
  • Move your groups back so you have more room (but still keep the desks in their groups!)
  • Answer the following question on your bell ringer:
    • Do humans affect the water cycle? Defend your answer.
global water crisis
Global Water Crisis
  • Most water is too salty to drink or use for irrigation
  • Of our fresh water, 2/3 goes to irrigation
  • Irrigation can be harmful to soil because of its high salt concentration
    • Salinization: Buildup of mineral salts in soil
    • Stunts growth of plants and decreases yields
global water crisis1
Global Water Crisis
  • Ground water supplies about 50% of the US’s drinking water
    • Pollution of this water=A BIG PROBLEM
      • Expensive and difficult to clean up
    • Overdrafts: Water withdrawn faster from an aquifer than it can be replaced
      • Salt water moves in and replaces the fresh water
global water crisis2
Global Water Crisis
  • Desalinization: Removal of salt from seawater
    • May help increase freshwater supplies
    • Requires large amounts of fossil fuels
    • Produces HUGE amounts of salt waste that must be disposed of
you try it1
You Try It!
  • Draw, in beautiful full color, the water cycle!
  • On the back, write out the water cycle
the carbon cycle
The Carbon Cycle
  • The process of carbon moving through the lower atmosphere and all food webs to and from its largest reservoirs
    • The earth’s crust (largest reservoir): 66-100 million gigatons
    • The ocean (HCO3-& CO32-): 38,000-40,000 GT
    • Air (CO2): 766 GT
    • Detritus: 1500-1600 GT
    • Living organisms: 540-610 GT
the carbon cycle1
The Carbon Cycle
  • Ocean currents move carbon from upper waters to deep reservoirs
    • CO2 enters surface waters and is converted to HCO3-
    • Winds and differences in density drive sea water in a loop from the surface of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans to the Atlantic and Antarctic sea floors
    • HCO3- moves into storage reservoirs before water loops back up
    • Helps dampen any short term effects of increases in atmospheric carbon emmissions
the carbon cycle2
The Carbon Cycle
  • Sea floor reservoirs can be emptied through:
    • Uplifting over geological time
    • Combustion of fossil fuels
  • Reenters the atmosphere as CO2 and either:
    • Reenters the ocean
    • Is fixed through photosynthesis in plants
the carbon cycle3
The Carbon Cycle
  • Uplifting over time results in terrestrial rocks storing carbon
    • Normal weathering leads to dissolved carbon in soil water
      • Soil water runs off and deposits carbon in the sea
    • Volcanic eruption releases this carbon to the air
the carbon cycle4
The Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon passes through the trophic levels
    • Eventually organism dies and is buried over geological time
    • The carbon forms fossil fuels
    • These fuels are released to the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels
humans and the carbon cycle
Humans and the Carbon Cycle
  • Each year, humans withdraw 4-5 GT of fossil fuels
  • Our activities release 6 GT more carbon than can be moved into the ocean
  • Only 2% of this excess is absorbed
  • Excess carbon traps heat, contributing to global climate change
greenhouse gases climate change
Greenhouse Gases & Climate Change
  • Greenhouse gases: CO2, water, NO, methane, chloroflurocarbons (CFC)
  • Radiation from the sun heats up earth’s surface
  • Earth releases infrared radiation that tries to escape to space
  • These greenhouse gases trap a portion of this energy then emit it back to earth (Greenhouse Effect)
    • Without this, earth would be too cold to support life
greenhouse gases climate change1
Greenhouse Gases & Climate Change
  • CO2 follows the alternating cycle of primary production
    • Decline in summer
    • Rise in winter
  • However, the overall trend is increasing over time
    • CO2 at its highest level since 470,000 years ago
    • Global warming: long-term increase in temp near the Earth’s surface
    • (Inconvenient Truth)
carbon collage
Carbon Collage
  • In your groups, use the magazines to make a collage representing the stages of the carbon cycle
  • Be prepared to defend your picture choices verbally and in writing!
carbon cycle frayer model
Carbon Cycle Frayer Model
  • Complete a Frayer Model of the carbon cycle
exit slip 8 27
Exit Slip, 8/27
  • Draw, in full color glory, the carbon cycle. INCLUDE ALL OF ITS STEPS
  • Can be turned in tomorrow if not finished when you leave
bell ringer 8 27
Bell Ringer, 8/27
  • On your bell ringer paper, write a poem (AT LEAST FOUR LINES) about the water cycle. Be creative!
bell ringer 8 28
Bell Ringer, 8/28
  • On your bell ringer sheet, list:
    • Five ways that energy flows in your front yard
    • Five ways that water cycles in your front yard
    • Five ways that carbon cycles in your front yard
the nitrogen cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Atmosphere is 80% nitrogen
  • Most of this cannot be used by plants
    • Combined by a triple bond
    • Plants don’t have the enzyme to break the triple bond
    • Some is converted to a usable form through lightning strikes and volcanic eruptions
the nitrogen cycle1
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Most usable nitrogen enters food webs through nitrogen fixation
    • Bacteria and nitrogen-fixing plants break all three bonds in N2 and convert into ammonium (NH3) then ammonium nitrate (NH4+) (nitrogen fixation)
    • These are taken up by plant roots
the nitrogen cycle2
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen moves up through trophic levels then ends up in wastes and remains
    • Ammonification: Bacteria & fungi break apart nitrogen-containing and producing ammonium
    • Some is released into soil and picked up by plants
    • Nitrification: Bacteria convert ammonium to nitrate, which can also be taken up by plants
the nitrogen cycle3
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Ecosystems lose nitrogen through denitrification
    • Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen or nitrogen oxide
    • Denitrifying bacteria are typically anaerobes that live in waterlogged soils and aquatic sediments
the nitrogen cycle4
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Ecosystems lose nitrogen through runoff and leaching
    • Nitrogen-rich runoff enters aquatic ecosystems
    • Leaching: Removal of some nutrients as water trickles down through the soil
humans and the nitrogen cycle
Humans and the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Deforestation and conversion of grassland to farmland increases nitrogen losses
    • Nitrogen from plant tissues is lost
    • Plant removal increases leaching and erosion
  • Farmers can combat nitrogen depletion by rotating their crops
humans and the nitrogen cycle1
Humans and the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Many farmers use synthetic nitrogen-rich fertilizers
    • Improves crop yields, but changes soil chemistry
    • Adds H ions (as well as N) to the soil
    • Increased acidity causes nutrient ions in soil to be replaced by H ions, while the nutrients (Ca and Mg) are washed away as run off
humans and the nitrogen cycle2
Humans and the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Burning of fossil fuel in cars and factories releases nitrogen oxides
    • Wind carry them away from their sources
    • Nitrogen rain occurs, disrupting the natural balance among competing species and causing diversity to decline
      • Especially pronounce in nitrogen-poor areas (high elevation and high latitudes)
humans and the nitrogen cycle3
Humans and the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen runoff disrupts aquatic ecosystems
    • Fertilizers run off into rivers and lakes
    • Nitrogen enters rivers through sewage
    • Promotes algal blooms
now write it
Now write it!
  • Write a first person narrative as a nitrogen molecule
  • Follow your molecule throughout all the steps of the nitrogen cycle
    • Should incorporate appropriate vocabulary
    • Should be entertaining
    • Should be creative
    • Should be AT LEAST one page long
exit slip 8 28
Exit Slip, 8/28
  • Turn in your completed Frayer Model of the nitrogen cycle.
bell ringer 8 29
Bell Ringer, 8/29
  • On your bell ringer paper, compare and contrast the nitrogen and carbon cycle. How are they similar? How are they different?
the phosphorus cycle
The Phosphorus Cycle
  • Earth’s crust is the largest reservoir of phosphorus
  • Phosphates are required building blocks for ATP, phospholipids, nucleic acids, and other compounds
  • Phosphates move quickly through food webs, move back from land to ocean sediments, then slowly back to land again
the phosphorus cycle1
The Phosphorus Cycle
  • Phosphorus in rocks is in the form of phosphate (PO43-)
    • Weathering and erosion release phosphate from rocks
    • Phosphate enters streams and rivers which delivers it to the ocean
the phosphorus cycle2
The Phosphorus Cycle
  • Phosphate accumulates as underwater deposits along edges of continents
    • After millions of years, the crust lifts and deposits phosphate rocks on land
    • These rocks are eroded, starting the cycle over again
the phosphorus cycle3
The Phosphorus Cycle
  • Plants take up dissolved phosphates from soil water
    • Herbivores get phosphates by eating plants
    • Carnivores get phosphates by eating herbivores
  • Animals lost phosphate in urine and feces
    • Bacteria and fungi release phosphate from waste and remains and return them to the soil
    • Plants pick up these phosphates again from the soil
the phosphorus cycle4
The Phosphorus Cycle
  • Of all minerals, phosphorus is most often the limiting factor in plant growth
    • Only newly weathered, young soil has abundant phosphorus
    • Tropical and subtropical ecosystems are low in phosphorus and are likely to be affected by human actions
humans and the phosphorus cycle
Humans and the Phosphorus Cycle
  • Forests get phosphorus through decaying trees and other organisms
    • If these sources are removed, stored phosphorus is lost
    • Crop yields decline
    • Regrowth remains sparse
    • Spreading finely ground phosphorus rock will repair the soil, but developing countries lack this resource
humans and the phosphorus cycle1
Humans and the Phosphorus Cycle
  • In developed countries, phosphorus from fertilizer runs off into aquatic ecosystems
    • Promotes destructive algal blooms
    • Eutrophication: nutrient enrichment of any ecosystem that is otherwise low on nutrients
humans and the phosphorus cycle2
Humans and the Phosphorus Cycle
  • Algal blooms
    • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria keep nitrogen levels high
    • Phosphorus becomes the limiting factor
    • Phosphorus-rich pollutants cause algae populations to soar then crash
    • Aerobic decomposers break down the dead algae, depleting the water of oxygen that fish and other organisms need to survive
exit slip 8 30
Exit Slip, 8/30
  • Make a chart comparing each of the cycles and energy flow that we have studied. Include: