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POLITICAL PARTIES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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POLITICAL PARTIES
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  1. POLITICAL PARTIES

  2. PARTY COMPONENTS • Party in the Electorate • Citizens who psychologically identify with a political party • Vote for party candidates • Activists-work for the party • Fundraising, campaigns, getting people to vote • Party in the Government • Appointed or elected officeholders • Representatives of certain party

  3. PARTY COMPONENTS • Formal Party Organization • Active party professionals • Precinct captains, county chairpersons, convention delegates • Control and direct the party • Attract people to their party • Seek positions of power • More ideologically extreme • Major goals • Recruit candidates • Capable of winning • Maximize the values of the party

  4. FUNCTION OF POLITICAL PARTIES • Mobilizing voters • Urge & help voters go to the polls • Selecting candidates • Attractive candidates=political power • Providing campaign resources • fundraising • Simplifying elections • Straight-party ticket-voting only for the candidates of your personal political party • Supply each voter with a list of candidates and party’s opinion of state questions

  5. FUNCTION OF POLITICAL PARTIES • Educating the public • Identify social problems and political solutions • Use the media to communicate solutions with the voters • Aggregating interests • Coordinate the combined interests and demands of the people • Organizing the decision making process • Party leaders are influential in selecting committee members • Playing the “watchdog” • Minority party critical of majority party • Groundwork for a political change

  6. POLITICAL PARTY ORGANIZATION • Local • Precinct • Party committee • County committee • State • State committee • State party chairperson

  7. POLITICAL PARTY ORGANIZATION • National • Headed by national committee and chairperson • Composed of • Congresspersons, state representatives, state chairpersons • Limited authority • Decides the location of national convention • Meets every four years • Writes party platform • Selection presidential and vice-presidential nominees

  8. POLITICAL PARTY ORGANIZATION • National • Ratifies selection of National Party Chairperson • Nominated by party’s presidential candidate • Hiring personnel • Handling administration duties • Spokesperson for party • Congressional Campaign Committee • Assists in fundraising and re-election efforts

  9. HISTORY OF AMERICA’S PARTY SYSTEMS • Founders’ View • Dangerous & disruptive • Not mentioned in Constitution • Promoted societal divisions • James Madison • “Factions” • George Washington • Farewell Address-warned the nation could be destroyed by political parties

  10. HISTORY OF AMERICA’S PARTY SYSTEMS • Divided Government (1980-present) • Republicans • Won 5 presidential elections • Democrats • Won 2 presidential elections • Bill Clinton (1992 & 1996) • Congress • Republican control 1980-1986 • Democratic control 1987-1994 • Republican control 1995-2006 • Democratic control 2007 • Party Dealignment • Voters moving away from both political parties • Voting for third party candidates • Split-ticket voting

  11. MINOR PARTIES • Attract new voters • Forums for different opinions • Brought new issues to political agenda • Election spoilers • Four types of minor parties

  12. MINOR PARTIES • Ideological • Espouse radical ideas or values • Libertarian Party • Created in 1917 • Unregulated free market, legalization of drugs, defender of civil liberties, avoid military interventions overseas • One Issue • Party interested in resolving one major social problem • Difficulty in attracting a broad spectrum of people • Free-Soil Party (1848) • Prohibition Party (1910)

  13. MINOR PARTIES • Economic Protest • Formation of party by group of people against current government’s economic policies • Greenback Party (1876-1884) • Free coinage of silver and income taxes • Populist Party (1890s) • Government ownership of means of production • Splinter • Faction from one of the major parties breaks away due to disagreement • Progressive “Bull Moose” Party (1912) • Dixiecrats (1948) • American Independent Party (1968)

  14. UNDERSTANDING POLITICAL PARTIES • Considered essential elements of democratic democracy • Candidates should say what they mean to do if elected and follow through • Responsible Party System • Each party present distinct programs • Implement the program if elected • Take responsibility for performance • Critics • Too decentralized and hard to enforce

  15. HISTORY OF AMERICA’S PARTY SYSTEMS • Federalists & Democratic-Republicans • 1796-1828 • Division over economic policies • Federalists • Alexander Hamilton • Northerners • Strong central government • Rule by the elite • Disappeared by 1816 • Democratic-Republicans • Thomas Jefferson • Opposite of Federalists • Ruling power from 1801-1828 (one party system)

  16. HISTORY OF AMERICA’S PARTY SYSTEMS • Democratic Era (1932-1980) • Great Depression • New Deal Coalition • Franklin Roosevelt • Alliance of urban dwellers, blue collar workers, southern conservatives, northern liberals • Won 8 presidential elections • Republicans • Won four elections • Eisenhower & Nixon (2 terms each) • Second realigning election (1968) • Broke “Solid South”

  17. HISTORY OF AMERICA’S PARTY SYSTEMS • Republican Era • 1860-1928 • Won 13 presidential elections • Division over slavery • Republican Party created in 1854 • Grand Old Party (GOP) • First republican president • Abraham Lincoln (1860) • Supported by • Former Union soldiers • Former slaves • Northerners • Realigning election • 1896 • Change in the loyalty of many voters

  18. HISTORY OF AMERICA’S PARTY SYSTEMS • Democrats & Whigs • 1828-1860 • Democratic-Republicans divide over election of 1824 • “Corrupt Bargain” • Democrats • Andrew Jackson • Common man’s participation • Small farmers, new immigrants, south and west • Dominant power • Whigs • Anti-Jackson • Northern manufacturers & Southern plantation owners • Only Presidential success • William H. Harrison (1840)

  19. HISTORY OF AMERICA’S PARTY SYSTEMS • Republican Era (1860-1928) • Democrats • Only presidential victories • Grover Cleveland (1884 & 1892) • Woodrow Wilson (1912 & 1916) • Supported by • Rural south • Immigrants • Progressives • Third Party • Emphasized political & social reform • Many beliefs became law • No presidential success