Med Terms Ch. 5 - Cardiology. Heart is located in the thoracic cavity , within the mediastinum . Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus. Welcome to the Cardiology!. The Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System. Structures: Heart
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Ch. 5 - Cardiology
Heart is located in the thoracic cavity, within the mediastinum.
Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus.
Welcome to the Cardiology!
Blood Vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins)
-Moves blood throughout the body
-Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes in the blood.
-Pumps blood throughout the body
-Controlled by electrical signals from the brain
Myocardium (cardiac muscle)
3. Mitral / Bicuspid
Function: Vascular channels through which blood flows in the body.
Lined with endothelium, a smooth inner layer (intima) that promotes the flow of blood.
Arteries & Arterioles
Veins & Venules
Always carry blood away from the heart to the body.
They carry bright red blood that has a high level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary arteries
Most arteries lie deep beneath the skin.
- All arteries have smooth muscle in their walls.
Axillary artery (armpit)
Brachial artery (upper arm)
Radial artery (thumb side of the lower arm)
Ulnar artery (little finger side of the lower arm)
Aorta (thoracic and abdominal)
-Smallest blood vessels in the body
-The lumen of a capillary is so small that blood cells must pass through in single file.
- They carry blood from the body back to the heart.
- They carry dark red-purple blood with a low level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary veins.
-Superior vena cava
-Inferior vena cava
-Saphenous and femoral veins
-Systemic circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins everywhere in the body, except in the lungs.
-Pulmonary circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins going to, within, and coming from the lungs.
The Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by an electrical conduction system
1. Sinoatrial node (SA node), or pacemaker of the heart, initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat.
2. Atrioventricularnode (AV node) receives the impulse to contract from the SA node.
-Purkinje fibers, a network of nerves, cause both ventricles to contract simultaneously
Question: What are some problems associated with the Sinoatrial Node? How can it be fixed?
-Acute coronary syndrome
-Congestive heart failure (CHF)
-Myocardial infarction (MI)
-Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
-Rheumatic heart disease
Abrahas/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
-Sick sinus syndrome
-Coronary artery disease (CAD)
-Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
(b) Michael English, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
SIU BioMed/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
C. Abrahams, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.
-C-reactive protein (CRP)
-Cardiac exercise stress test
-Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)
-Electrophysiologic study (EPS)
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-Pharmacologic stress test
Fotopic/Miles Simons/Phototake NYC
Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Matt Meadows/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.
Pearson Education/PH College
Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College
F. Schussler/PhotoDisc/Getty Images
(left) English/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. (right) Alvis Upitis/Jupiter Images-PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free
-Radiofrequency catheter ablation
Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.