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Monopoly and Antitrust Policy

Monopoly and Antitrust Policy. Chapter 13. CHAPTER OUTLINE. Imperfect Competition and Market Power : Core Concepts Defining Industry Boundaries Barriers to Entry Price: The Fourth Decision Variable Price and Output Decisions in Pure Monopoly Markets Demand in Monopoly Markets

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Monopoly and Antitrust Policy

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  1. Monopoly and Antitrust Policy Chapter 13

  2. CHAPTER OUTLINE Imperfect Competition and Market Power: Core Concepts Defining Industry Boundaries Barriers to Entry Price: The Fourth Decision Variable Price and Output Decisions in Pure Monopoly Markets Demand in Monopoly Markets Perfect Competition and Monopoly Compared Collusion and Monopoly Compared The Social Costs of Monopoly Inefficiency and Consumer Loss Rent-Seeking Behavior Price Discrimination Examples of Price Discrimination Remedies for Monopoly: Antitrust Policy The Development of Antitrust Law: Historical Background A Natural Monopoly Do Natural Monopolies Still Exist? Imperfect Markets: A Review and a Look Ahead

  3. An imperfectly competitive industry is an industry in which single firms have some control over the price of their output. monopoly A market in which a single firm sells aproduct that does not have any closesubstitutes. Market power is the imperfectly competitive firm’s ability to raise price without losing all demand for its product. Imperfect Competitionand Market Power

  4. The ease with which consumers can substitute for a product limits the extent to which a monopolist can exercise market power. The more broadly a market is defined, the more difficult it becomes to find substitutes. Defining Industry Boundaries

  5. pure monopoly An industry with a single firm that produces a product for which there are no close substitutes and in which significant barriers to entry prevent other firms from entering the industry to compete for profits. Pure Monopoly

  6. barrier to entry Something that prevents firms fromentering a profitable market. Things that prevent new firms from entering and competing in imperfectly competitive industries include: • Government franchises • Patents • Economies of scale and other cost advantages • Ownership of a scarce factor of production Barriers to Entry

  7. Government franchises, or firms that become monopolies by virtue of a government directive. Patents or barriers that grant the exclusive use of the patented product or process to the inventor. Economies of scale and other cost advantages enjoyed by industries that have large capital requirements. A large initial investment, or the need to embark in an expensive advertising campaign, deter would-be entrants to the industry. Ownership of a scarce factor of production:If production requires a particular input, and one firm owns the entire supply of that input, that firm will control the industry. Barriers to Entry

  8. Firms with market power must decide: • how much to produce, • how to produce it, • how much to demand in each input market, and • what price to charge for their output. Price: The Fourth Decision Variable

  9. To analyze monopoly behavior we assume that: • Entry to the market is blocked • Firms act to maximize profit • The pure monopolist buys in competitive input markets • The monopolistic firm cannot price discriminate • The monopoly faces a known demand curve Price and Output Decisions in Pure Monopoly Markets

  10. With one firm in a monopoly market, there is no distinction between the firm and the industry. In a monopoly, the firm is the industry. The market demand curve is the demand curve facing the firm, and total quantity supplied in the market is what the firm decides to produce. For a monopoly, the market demand curve is also a firm demand curve, since the firm sells to the whole market! Price and Output Decisions in Pure Monopoly Markets

  11. The demand curve facing a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic; in a monopoly, the market demand curve is the demand curve facing the firm. Price and Output Decisions in Pure Monopoly Markets

  12. Marginal Revenue Facing a Monopolist At every level of output except 1 unit, a monopolist’s marginal revenue (MR) is below price. This is so because (1) we assume that the monopolist must sell all its product at a single price (no price discrimination) and (2) to raise output and sell it, the firm must lower the price it charges. Selling the additional output will raise revenue, but this increase is offset somewhat by the lower price charged for all units sold. Therefore, the increase in revenue from increasing output by 1 (the marginal revenue) is less than the price.

  13. A monopoly’s marginal revenue curve bisects the quantity axis between the origin and the point where the demand curve hits the quantity axis. A monopolist’s marginal revenue curve shows the change in total revenue that results as a firm moves along the segment of the demand curve that lies exactly above it. Marginal Revenue and Total Revenue

  14. Price and Output Choice for a Profit-Maximizing Monopolist A profit-maximizing monopolist will raise output as long as marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost. Maximum profit is at an output of 4,000 units per period and a price of $4. Above 4,000 units of output, marginal cost is greater than marginal revenue; increasing output beyond 4,000 units would reduce profit. At 4,000 units, TR = PmAQm0, TC = CBQm0, and profit = PmABC.

  15. A monopoly firm has no supply curve that is independent of the demand curve for its product. A monopolist sets both price and quantity, and the amount of output supplied depends on both its marginal cost curve and the demand curve that it faces. The Absence of a SupplyCurve in Monopoly

  16. In a perfectly competitive industry in the long-run, price will be equal to long-run average cost. The market supply is the sum of all the short-run marginal cost curves of the firms in the industry. Perfect Competition andMonopoly Compared

  17. Relative to a competitively organized industry, a monopolist restricts output, charges higher prices, and earns positive profits. Perfect Competition andMonopoly Compared Costs And Revenues Of The Consolidated Monopoly İndustry.

  18. Collusion is the act of working with other producers in an effort to limit competition and increase joint profits. When firms collude, the outcome would be exactly the same as the outcome of a monopoly in the industry. Collusion and Monopoly Compared

  19. The Social Costs of Monopoly A demand curve shows the amounts that people are willing to pay at each potential level of output. Thus, the demand curve can be used to approximate the benefits to the consumer of raising output above 2,000 units. MC reflects the marginal cost of the resources needed. The triangle ABC roughly measures the net social gain of moving from 2,000 units to 4,000 units (or the loss that results when monopoly decreases output from 4,000 units to 2,000 units).

  20. Rent-Seeking Behavior rent-seeking behavior Actions taken by households or firms to preserve positive profits. government failure Occurs when the government becomes the tool of the rent seeker and the allocation of resources is made even less efficient by the intervention of government. public choice theory An economic theory that the public officials who set economic policies and regulate the players act in their own self-interest, just as firms do.

  21. A trust is an arrangement in which shareholders of independent firms agree to give up their stock in exchange for trust certificates that entitle them to a share of the trust’s common profits. A group of trustees then operates the trust as a monopoly, controlling output and setting price. Remedies for Monopoly:Antitrust Policy

  22. A natural monopoly is an industry that realizes such large economies of scale in producing its product that single-firm production of that good or service is most efficient. Natural Monopoly With one firm producing 500,000 units, average cost is $1 per unit. With five firms each producing 100,000 units, average cost is $5 per unit.

  23. Natural Monopoly Rather than regulating a natural monopoly that is run by a private firm, the government can run the monopoly itself (e.g. in the United States, the government runs the Postal Service).

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