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Part IV Control Processes in Police Management. Chapter 15 Change. Learning Objectives. Understand the goals of organizational change. List the steps used to assess the need for change. Understand the process of designing and implementing change.

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Part iv control processes in police management

Part IVControl Processes inPolice Management

Chapter 15Change

Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Understand the goals of organizational change.

  • List the steps used to assess the need for change.

  • Understand the process of designing and implementing change.

  • Discuss the modern method of “organizational development.”

  • Understand the potential risks of reform, including types of resistance and steps for overcoming them.

  • Outline the various approaches to change, including types of resistance and steps for overcoming them.

  • Understand specific types of change occurring in police organizations at the present time.

Essential elements for successful police change
Essential Elements for Successful Police Change

The chief must have an abiding and energetic commitment to the values of the change.

The chief must be the institutional leader in the change by motivating and even manipulating the personnel.

The chief must defend the change once it is achieved.

Change is not likely to happen unless there is public support for it.

Why change occurs
Why Change Occurs

The police department has been deemed deficient.

Police-community relations have suffered because of misconduct, scandal, or other wrongdoing.

Morale in the department is suffering.

Goals of police organizational change
Goals of Police Organizational Change

  • Promotion of participatory management models

    • Change to attract and retain high-quality personnel

    • Expansion maximizes individual officer’s potential

  • Resolving and preventing problems

  • Adapting and planning

    • Agencies are not static; they don’t exist in a vacuum

    • Must anticipate future problems and special conditions

Assessing the need for change
Assessing the Need for Change

  • External Consultants

    • Paid to identify problems and recommend solutions

    • View the organization objectively, but can be self-serving

    • Should be utilized only as the last resort

  • Internal Resources

    • Personnel must have participatory roles in the self-study

    • They must have autonomy of action, decision, and choice

    • The group culture must be built around a cause to which it can be committed

    • A meaningful future must be offered as the outcome

    • The organization must allow a natural leader to emerge

Designing and implementing organizational change
Designing and Implementing Organizational Change

Identifying a performance gap

Recognition of a need for change

Creating a proper climate for change

Diagnosing the problem

Identifying alternative change strategies

Selecting the change strategy

Determining and operationalizing the implementation strategy

Evaluating and modifying the change strategy

Identifying a performance gap
Identifying a Performance Gap

  • A performance gap is the difference between the expected behavior and the actual behavior.

  • A performance gap exists:

    • whenever the police are not performing at the level the community or the organization wants or needs them to perform

    • whenever the police are not performing the functions that the community or the organization wants or needs them to perform

    • when an agency has a high incidence of excessive use of force

Recognition of a need for change
Recognition of a Need for Change

The most important consideration is to make a change only when it will measurably improve the agency.

The larger the performance gap and the more important the area of performance is to the agency or the community, the greater the need for change.

The smart administrator is open to addressing the performance gap and is personally involved in fixing it.

Creating a proper climate for change
Creating a Proper Climatefor Change

  • The proper climate for change exists when the organization:

    • makes change a part of its routine business

    • encourages participation by suggesting and implementing change

  • Four factors:

    • Perceived need for change

    • Perceived openness of the organization to change

    • Potential for change within the organization

    • Perceived possibility of participation by the police officer in implementing change

Diagnosing the problem
Diagnosing the Problem

  • Proper diagnosis in a department depends on:

    • A thorough knowledge of organizational behavior and theory

    • A thorough understanding of the history and current status of the department

    • Adequate questioning to find the source of the problem

  • The best diagnosis comes when the administrator also asks police officers what they consider to be the problem and what they want the organization to be.

Selecting the change strategy
Selecting the Change Strategy

  • Factors to consider include:

    • Availability of resources (personnel and equipment)

    • Reaction of personnel and community to the potential change

    • Potential outcome of the change strategy

    • Amount of effort needed to implement the change in comparison to the possible outcome

Determining and operationalizing the implementation strategy
Determining and Operationalizing the Implementation Strategy

  • The one indispensable ingredient to planned change is assertive commitment on the part of the police chief

    • Change must move from the top down

    • The chief’s charisma is of special significance

  • The implementation strategy and the implementation itself must be designed and accomplished while minimizing the risks to the organization.

Organizational development
Organizational Development

Deals with the whole organization or divisions within organizations

Uses behavioral science research to improve leadership, motivation, and other factors

Is adaptive and flexible

Focuses on productivity and quality of life within the organization

Technostructural strategy focuses on organizational structure, workflow, task accomplishment, and performance

Human processual approach focuses on needs of employees and is directed toward improving communication and other group processes

The organizational development process
The Organizational Development Process

  • Diagnosis

    • Gathering data

  • Intervention

    • Process consultation

    • Team building

    • Third-party intervention

    • Technostructural activities

  • Evaluation

    • Ensures that changes are producing desired results

Risks associated with change
Risks Associated with Change

  • Broad factors:

    • The environment

    • Organizational characteristics

    • Human cognition

  • In other words:

    • External forces (political pressure)

    • Internal problems (lack of communication)

    • Human decisions (reluctance to pursue reforms enthusiastically)

Resistance to change
Resistance to Change

  • Tokenism

    • When people who appear to be contributing to a program actually only make a small (token) contribution

  • Massive resistance

    • Organizational participants who pour all their energies into resisting change

Minimizing resistance
Minimizing Resistance

  • Unfreezing

    • Identifying the source of resistance

  • Changing

    • The administrator’s efforts to have subordinates learn the newly required behaviors

  • Refreezing

    • Reinforcing new behaviors

  • Education and communication

  • Participation and involvement

  • Facilitation and support

  • Negotiation and agreement

  • Manipulation and cooptation

  • Explicit and implicit coercion

  • Force-field analysis

Approaches to change
Approaches to Change

Individual change

Organizational structure and systems change

Organizational climate and interpersonal style change

Individual change
Individual Change

Utilizes education, training, socialization, and attitude change as intervention techniques

Organizational structure and systems change
Organizational Structure and Systems Change

Modifying actual organizational practices, procedures, and policies that affect what people do at work

Intended outcome is the creation of conditions that elicit and reward behavior that facilitates organizational goal achievement

Organizational climate and interpersonal style change
Organizational Climate and Interpersonal Style Change

  • Aimed at increasing members’ awareness of social determinants of their behavior

  • Helping people learn new ways of relating to and reacting to each other within the organizational context

  • Creation of systemwide climate change characterized by:

    • High personal trust

    • Openness

    • Reduction of the dysfunctional consequences of excessive social conflict and competitiveness

Police organizational change
Police Organizational Change

Participative management

Flattening the organization

Community policing


Police-community collaboration

Interdepartmental cooperation

Homeland security

Participative management
Participative Management

The police serve, learn from, and are accountable to the community

Together, they are co-producers of crime prevention

Think-tank approach

Neighborhood police team

Flattening the organization
Flattening the Organization

  • Vertical differentiation

    • The distance from the bottom to the top of the organization

    • Those in favor of organizational flattening favor reductions through:

      • Developing more informal managerial channels

      • Reducing the levels of command

  • Administrative density

    • Refers to the size of the administrative component of the organization

    • Those in favor of organizational flattening desire reductions in the administrative component

Community policing
Community Policing






Utilizing civilians instead of sworn police officers in positions not specifically requiring the authority of a sworn officer

Allows police to concentrate on highly skilled police tasks

Civilians perform routine and communications tasks

Police community collaboration
Police-Community Collaboration

Citizen advisory committees to police agencies

Police representation on existing community and government agencies

Neighborhood watch groups

Community action groups

Future trends and challenges
Future Trends and Challenges

  • The future of policing in America will be affected by several factors:

    • Continuing shifts in the nation’s demographics

    • Police will have to tailor their search for qualified applicants

    • Police will have to offer attractive wage and benefits packages

    • Diversity in the ranks will have to be encouraged

    • Technology is rapidly changing the face of crime

    • High-tech crime poses new challenges