Personal Computers and Applications Networking for Home and Small Businesses – Chapter 1
Objectives • Purpose and use of personal computers. • Differentiate local and network applications. • Different types of computing devices and usage. • Binary Arithmetic and Character representation. • Computer System Components and Peripheral devices and there requirements. • Install, verify, and upgrade computer hardware components and peripherals.
Purpose and Uses of Personal Computers • Business organizations • Home Users • Government • Education System (Schools) • Non Profit Organizations • Vehicle using GPS systems or using Digitally tuned engines for patrol consumption, brakes and other systems managed by microprocessors • E-Banking and ATM
Computers need 3 things . . . • Hardware: Work on Electronic Signals • Operating System: Pass User Tasks to Hardware for Execution. • Application Software: Specifically generated software used by user for doing particular task. It works on operating systems.
Purpose and Uses of Personal Computers • Few Application Software used in Business & Industry (specifically build to cope with industry specific needs) • Medical • Educational • Legal • Few Application Software for General Use (Provide basic level wide variety of services used by wide range of people) • Word Processor Applications • Spreadsheets • Simple accounting software
Types of Applications • Local – runs on only one PC also known as Desktop Applications. • Network – runs over the network or the Internet • Must have two components • runs on a local computer (Client Applications such as Web Browser) • runs on a remote computer (Server Application such as Web Server)
Types of Computing Devices • Main Frame: • Multiple processors used for executing several user applications together at a very high speed in a centralized environment. (work with dumb terminals) • Servers: • work in Client Server Architecture, used to execute several client requests in a centralized environment. Client machines are not dumb terminals and normally execute applications on client machine itself and only depend for data from server. (reduce redundancy of data). • Workstations: • Workstations are high-powered business computers. They are designed for executing specialized, high-end applications used in business environment such as CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering)
Types of Computing Devices • Desktop: • Desktops support many options and capabilities. • Wide variety of components and Peripherals supported. • Used to execute common generalized applications such as web browsing, word processor, spreadsheets, email client etc.. • Laptop: • A Mobile computer work on less power and have built in mouse and keyboard. • Equivalent capabilities to desktop computers. • Less support to peripherals and additional components then desktops. (these facilities can be generated using a docking station) • Handheld computing Devices • Devices available with various capabilities and varieties. Few of them are Mobile phone, Palmtop, PDA, Gaming Devices etc.
Types of Computing Devices • Servers • High performance computers which provide services to many clients using • Multiple CPUs • high speed and higher capacity RAM • and high capacity Storage Drives.
Types of Computing Devices • Type of Servers: • Standalone Server: • single server unit may be available with single processor or multiple processor. • Rack-Mount Server • Multiple server units configured and mounted on rack requiring less space as no separate I/O units available. • Blade Server • Multiple blades (Server) available on single blade rack. Highly flexible, robust and scalable environment.
Types of Computing Devices • Desktop personal computer (PC) • Used to run everyday applications • Email • Internet • Word Processing • Spreadsheet • Having many I/O device connection options for connecting printers, modem, scanners, mouse, keyboard, monitor etc.
Types of Computing Devices • Workstation – high powered computers • Features • Multiple processors • Large amounts of RAM • High capacity drives • Types of applications • Computer Aided Design (CAD) • Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) • Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) • Video animation • Example: Sun System’s Silicon Graphics Workstation, IBM’s CAE Workstation
Number Systems • Number Systems mostly used by humans and computers: • Base 2 (Binary) Means 2 digits, 0 and 1 • Base 8 (Octal) means 8 digits, 0 to 7 • Base 10 (Decimal) Means 10 digits, 0 to 9 • Base 16 (Hexadecimal) means 16 digits from 0 to 9 and A to F • So how do we communicate?? • Simple – Learn Conversion between Decimal, Octal and Hexadecimal to Binary and Binary to Hexadecimal and Octal and Decimal • Computer Represent data in Binary.
What helps determine the speed? • Type of Media • UTP Cable • Fiber • Wireless • Type of file • Larger files require more time to download • Type of Network connection • Bandwidth and Throughput
Determining Screen Resolution and Speed • Measuring resolution and frequency • Pixels – determines the resolution in number of points in row and column on screen. • Hertz = how fast something recycle or refreshes used to represent the speed on processor, memory, motherboard and other hardware components and refresh rate of monitor. • 300 MHz = 300 million cycles/second
Purchasing Computer • Preassembled or Custom Built – which one should you choose?? • Preassembled Advantages: • Lower Cost • Performs most applications • Preassembled Disadvantages: • May lack in performance • Fixed Components and Configurations • Custom Built Advantages: • Components as per your requirements • Supports higher performance applications • Custom Built Disadvantages • Costly
Determining Appropriate Components and Peripheral Devices • Motherboard • main circuit board • slots for processor, RAM, IDE and Floppy Drives • Expansion Slots (ISA, EISA, PCI or Extended PCI) for NIC, sound card, internal modems, etc. • AGP Slot • Additional onboard backend interfaces for attaching various other devices such as keyboard, mouse, printers etc.
CPU • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • nerve center of the computer • Factors to remember when selecting your processor • higher speed = faster performance • more power = more heat • Support to OS (16 Bit, 32 Bit or 64 Bit) • Bus • how data gets to its location (like a highway) • faster bus = faster computer • Front-side Bus Speed (FSB) calculated in Hertz
RAM • Random Access Memory (RAM) • temporary storage • stores data while it is being processed by the CPU • Why would a user need more RAM? • Multiple applications running at the same time • Applications are more memory intensive such as Database or Specific Server Applications. • Multiple CPUs • Maximum RAM availability determined by the motherboard
Additional Cards and Functionality • Adapter cards add additional functionality to a computer system such as sound card, NIC, Modem, IDE Card, Graphics Adapter Cards etc.
Optical Drives • Optical Drives • Use of laser beams to record and read information • CD or DVD – uses red laser • CDs can store upto 700MB • DVDs can store up to 8GB data. • Blue Ray – uses blue-violet laser • can hold up to 25GB of data.
Magnetic Storage Devices • Magnetic Drives • Hard Drive • Floppy Drive • Tape Drive
Additional Devices • Peripheral Devices • Added to the computer to expand its capabilities • Different categories • Input (Key board, mouse, Scanners etc) • Output (Monitor, Printers) • Storage (Flash Drive, USB Hard Disk etc. • Networking (External Modems etc.) • Where do these devices fit??
Power Supply to your Computer and Peripherals • Surge Protector • Prevents damage to the computer. • Normally have fuse for protecting from higher voltage levels. • UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) • Keeps charge of internal battery • Provides backup power without interruption for a short period of time • Normally give enough time to properly shutdown computer.
Install, Verify and Upgrade Components and Peripherals • Computer Repair Best Practices • Turn PC off and unplug power • Determine if the part is hot-swappable (if so, there is no need to turn off power before adding or removing the part) • Never open power supply or monitor • both contain high voltages • Be aware of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) • transfers electricity from your body to electrical parts • ground yourself properly
Install, Verify and Upgrade Components and Peripherals • Take the following precautions: • Determine if the component is hot swappable • If in doubt, unplug it!! • Use ESD safe environment. • wear grounding strap on wrist. • Remove old component • Check the connection on the new component • Should fit easily; if you have to force it, it probably doesn’t belong there • Place component in the correct slot
Install, Verify and Upgrade Components and Peripherals • PS/2 - connects keyboard and mouse • USB – connects many devices (PnP) • Serial – connects modems/serial mouse etc. • Parallel – connects printer • VGA – connects monitors • RJ11 – connects phone lines • RJ45 – connects to the network