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Chapter 21 TOWARD EMPIRE. America Past and Present Eighth Edition. Roosevelt & the Rough Riders. April 1898 ~ Theodore Roosevelt resigned his position as Asst Sec of the Navy to raise his own regiment to fight in the Spanish American War

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chapter 21 toward empire


America Past and Present

Eighth Edition

roosevelt the rough riders
Roosevelt & the Rough Riders
  • April 1898 ~ Theodore Roosevelt resigned his position as Asst Sec of the Navy to raise his own regiment to fight in the Spanish American War
    • The 1st US Volunteer Cavalry was an intriguing mix of Ivy League athletes & western frontiersmen
      • Anxious to set off on a great adventure


america looks outward
America Looks Outward
  • Since the first landings in Jamestown & Plymouth, the country had been expanding, but expansion in the 1890s was different
    • This expansion sought to gain possessions, most already thickly populated
  • New territories intended not for settlement but for naval bases, trading outposts, & commercial operations
  • The Spirit of Empire ~ Americans abandoning isolationism in favor of imperialism
    • Military & economic control over other peoples


reasons for expansion
Reasons for Expansion
  • Political leaders began to argue for the vital importance of foreign markets to continue economic growth
  • Others were also interested in empire building ~ In last third of 19th century, Great Britain, France & Germany divided up Africa & were interested in Asia
  • Darwinist’s used their belief in superiority as a reason to expand & protect the weak
  • Missionary spirit expressed in Josiah Strong's popular OurCountry (1885)
    • Christianize the “inferior” races


foreign policy approaches 1867 1900
Foreign Policy Approaches:1867–1900
  • Expansionist foreign policy ~ Wanted Canada, Mexico, Caribbean & Pacific Islands
  • 1867 ~ Sec of State Seward acquired:
    • Uninhabited “Midway” Islands ~ Guano & Coal
      • First territory outside the continental US
    • Alaska ~ Purchased from Russia for $6M
  • Contested European interests in Latin America
    • Advocated the Monroe Doctrine ~ “Hands off the western world”
  • US reciprocity (mutual exchange) w/ Latin Am


the lure of hawaii samoa
The Lure of Hawaii & Samoa
  • 1820 ~ Missionaries arrive in Hawaii
    • Their children come to dominate political & economic life
  • 1875 ~ Hawaiian sugar allowed to enter US duty free in return for not making any territorial or economic concessions to other powers
    • Dole Pineapple Company
    • Hawaii became an American protectorate
  • New Queen Liliuokalani resented minority rule
    • Unhappy Americans revolted ~ US Marines
    • 1893 ~ Hawaii annexed
  • 1898 ~ Hawaii an official US possession


the lure of hawaii samoa1
The Lure of Hawaii & Samoa
  • 1872 ~ US very interested in Samoa, 3k mi south of Hawaii
    • 1878 ~ Treaty established US naval base
    • Great Britain & Germany also interested in Samoa
  • 1889 ~ Situation became tense when ships from all three nations gathered in a Samoan harbor
    • Delegates met in Berlin to negotiate
  • 1899 ~ US & Germany divided up the islands & compensated Britain w/ lands elsewhere in the Pacific


hawaiian islands
Hawaiian Islands
  • Difficulties:
  • Threat of Japanese military actions
  • Washington not in agreement
  • Colonial problems
  • Opposition to annexing non-Anglo-Saxon people


the new navy
The New Navy
  • US had powerful fleet during Civil War but it quickly fell into disrepair
    • 1883 Congress authorized the first modern steel ships
  • Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan, author of The Influence of Sea Power upon History, stressed the importance of a strong navy for a multitude of reasons
  • By the end of the 1890s ~ 17 steel battleships, 6 armored cruisers, & many smaller craft


war with spain 1898
War with Spain ~ 1898
  • The war increased overseas possessions
  • It also gained the US recognition as a “world power”
  • Americans became convinced they had a special destiny


a war for principle
A War for Principle
  • Cuba & Puerto Rico almost only thing left of Spain’s once vast empire
    • Cuban people treated cruelly
    • February 1895 ~ Rebellion in Cuba
  • "Yellow Journalism" whipped up US sentiment to favor Cuban independence
    • Wm Randolph Hearst
    • Joseph Pulitzer
  • Pres McKinley sent USS Maine to Havana harbor as a show of force


a war for principle1
A War for Principle
  • McKinley sent aide on fact finding mission
    • He protested to Spain regarding their “uncivilized & inhuman” conduct
  • Feb 15, 1898 ~ Maine “explodes”
    • 266 lives lost
    • “Remember the Maine”
  • Although he had worked hard to avoid it, McKinley signed the declaration of war on April 25, 1898
    • Kick the Spanish out & Cuba to be independent


a splendid little war
"A Splendid Little War"
  • War lasted only ten weeks ~ Relatively few Americans died
  • Regular Army was small & ill-prepared
    • Only 28k officers & men, most experienced only in quelling Indian uprisings, not large-scale battles
  • Problems of equipment & supply
    • Regulars had latest Krag-Jorgensen rifles
    • NG units had old Civil War Springfield rifles that used black powder ~ Spanish had modern rifles
    • Food & illness serious problems
      • More died of disease than battlefield wounds


smoked yankees
“Smoked Yankees”
  • When the invasion force sailed for Cuba, almost ¼ were Af American
    • 24th & 25th Infantry & 9th & 10th Cavalry
    • AL, OH, & MA provided black NG units
  • Black troops extremely disturbed by segregation ~ Numerous fights
  • Af Am soldiers won 26 Certificates of Merit & 5 Cong Medals of Honor


spanish american war pacific theater

The Course of the War

Spanish-American War:Pacific Theater
  • Naval strategy was simple: destroy the Spanish Fleet
  • May 1, 1898, Commodore Dewy sailed from Hong Kong & trapped the Spanish in Manila Bay ~ “You may fire when ready, Gridley”
  • A quick & unexpected prize of war


spanish american war caribbean theater

The Course of the War

Spanish-American War: Caribbean Theater

McKinley was worried about the main Spanish fleet which could possibly attack Florida, but it became bottled up in Santiago Bay

Marine & Army troops invaded during June & fought their way toward Santiago de Cuba

Fleet tried to escape, but was totally destroyed ~ Spain was helpless

Of 5,500 American deaths only 379 were from battle ~ Accidents, yellow fever, malaria, typhoid


acquisition of empire
Acquisition of Empire
  • Fate of the Philippines was the thorniest issue at the peace negotiations
    • A huge chain of islands & very far away
    • Cuba & Puerto Rice were close
    • Guam small & unimportant
  • December, 1898 ~ Treaty of Paris
    • Cuba declared independent
    • U.S. acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines
    • $20M paid to Spain


the treaty of paris debate
The Treaty of Paris Debate
  • Treaty still had to be ratified by the Senate
  • Many Anti-Imperialists against it
    • Jane Addams, Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain
    • Argued that imperialism violated the very ideals upon which the US was founded
    • Wm James, “America is about to puke up its heritage”
    • Andrew Carnegie offered to buy Filipino independence with a personal check for $20M
  • February 1899 ~ Ratification made the US a colonial empire


guerrilla warfare in the philippines
Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines
  • 1898 – 1901~ Emilio Aguinaldo led Philippine independence movement
    • Fought w/ US against the Spanish
  • Filipinos used guerilla war tactics, US adopted tactics Spanish used in Cuba
    • Philippine-American War more costly than the Spanish-American War
  • 1901 ~ US replaced military with civil rule
    • Local self-government permitted
    • Schedule established for independence
  • July 4, 1946 ~ Philippine independence


governing the empire
Governing the Empire
  • How could/should new territories be governed?
  • Supreme Court applied selective application of the Constitution to new territories
  • Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico organized as territories, inhabitants later made US citizens
  • Navy controlled Guam & Samoa
  • Cuban Constitution ended US occupation
    • Platt Amendment to Cuban Constitution ~ US given right to intervene in Cuban affairs & lease Guantanamo Bay


the open door
The Open Door
  • Poised in the Philippines, the US was on the doorstep of China
    • China was weak from yrs of warfare & unable to resist foreign influence
  • US sought more trade, but “no advantages in the Orient not common to all”
  • US promoted an "Open Door" policy in China
    • No nation should carve out a sphere of influence in China & exclude others from trading there
  • US not prepared to militarily defend & therefore left the opportunity for later controversy


outcome of the war with spain
Outcome of the War with Spain
  • Teddy Roosevelt a war hero
  • Civil rights for African Americans set back
    • Fresh outbreak of segregation & lynching
  • Confirmed Republicans as majority party
    • Dominated politics until 1932
  • U.S. soldiers stationed outside the country
  • By 1900, the US had grow from 13 states along the Atlantic coastline into a majorworldpower that reached from the Caribbean to the Pacific


chapter 21 toward empire1


America Past and Present

Eighth Edition