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Unit 2—Chapters 6 – 8. A New Nation CSS 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 11.1, 11.3, 11.10. French-Indian War different because starts in North America map changed (French defeated) Ft. Necessity, 1754 French built a fort at Duquesne before the British could

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Unit 2 chapters 6 8

Unit 2—Chapters 6 – 8

A New Nation

CSS 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 11.1, 11.3, 11.10

French indian war 1754 1763

French-Indian War different because

starts in North America

map changed (French defeated)

Ft. Necessity, 1754

French built a fort at Duquesne before the British could

Washington led 159 men into the Ohio River area

killed 40 French soldiers in skirmish

Ft. Necessity built in anticipation of French retaliation

surrendered after 10-hour siege

Braddock’s March, 1755

Braddock marched on Ft. Duchesne

his defeat left area open to bloody frontier war

Albany Plan, 1754

British success hinged on alliance with Iroquois

9 colonies met at Albany

Franklin proposed a colonial-wide govt. to oversee defense and trade

colonists liked it but King did not

William Pitt (Prime Minister)

focused on taking cities rather than frontier fighting

paid all expenses for American militia

French-Indian War (1754-1763)

Death of General Wolfe, 1770 – Benjamin West

Braddock’s Defeat

1,460 British regulars and militia

--456 were killed and 421 wounded

--63 of 86 offices were killed/wounded

250 French and Canadians

--8 killed, 4 wounded

637 Indian allies

--15 killed, 12 wounded

End of salutory neglect

Proclamation Line of 1763

colonists not allowed west of Appalachians

meant to protect Indians from American settlers (Chief Pontiac)

colonists paranoid

Sugar Act, 1764

George Grenville (PM) tried to raise revenue to pay national debt

taxes lowered after colonists protested

Quartering Act, 1765

required colonists to house and feed British troops

colonists paranoid

Declaratory Act, 1766

Parliament has authority over the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”

Stamp Act, 1765

tax on all official documents

less than today’s sales tax

already existed in Britain for years

“no taxation w/o representation”

Stamp Tax Congress, 1765

first colony-wide meeting

9 colonies met to stop tax (mostly NE)

wrote letter to king

nonimportation agreement

external vs. internal argument

Stamp Act repealed even before it began—colonists saw it as victory

British Response

virtual representation

every member of Parliament represents every citizen

admiralty courts

military courts

no trial by jury

End of Salutory Neglect

King George III


Colonial Assemblies

King George III


Colonial Assemblies

Boston massacre and boston tea party

Townsend Acts, 1767

Townsend (PM) tried to raise a small tax on glass, lead, paper, and tea

colonists decided that Parliament had no right to tax colonies

Boston Massacre, 1770

colonists harassed troops in Boston (rocks thrown, shots fired)

11 killed or wounded – Crispus Attucks

John Adams defended them and only 2 soldiers found guilty

all future officials to be tried in London

Sam Adams created “Massacre Day”

Committees of Correspondence, 1772

formed by Samuel Adams

local spy rings made to share info and keep people angry at British

militia begin drilling to fight tyranny

Gaspee Affair, 1772

British vessel boarded then burned in RI

no one would testify so no one got caught

Boston Tea Party, 1773

British East Indies faced bankruptcy

need colonists to buy million of tons of tea

cheaper than smuggled tea

Adams refused to let tea out of harbor but king ordered it unloaded (it sat for days)

Boston patriots disguised as Indians dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor

Quebec Act, 1774

granted religious freedom to Catholic Canadians

added Ohio to Canada

colonists saw it as punishment

Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party

Continental congresses

Intolerable Acts, 1773

passed to punish Boston for tea party

Boston Port Act—closed harbor until the £90,000 tea paid for

other colonies sent aid in sympathy

led to 1st Continental Congress

1st Continental Congress, 1774

12 colonies met in Philadelphia

wrote “Declaration of Rights”

organized total boycott

nonimportation, nonexportation, nonconsumption

agreed to meet in May of 1775

Lexington and Concord, 1775

in April 1775, British troops tried to confiscate a store of munitions (and Hancock and Adams)

Minutemen refuse to disperse at Lexington

8 Americans killed

200 British wounded, 70 killed

Second Continental Congress, 1775

in May 1775, all 13 colonies met to follow up from 1774

under Hancock became acting government until 1781

tried to reconcile with George III with the Olive Branch Petition

Britain hired 30,000 Hessian mercenaries to send to America

Common Sense, 1776

Paine’s pamphlet for the common man sold 120,000 copies

called the king a tyrant and called for separation

set the stage for independence

Declaration of Independence, 1776

Richard Henry Lee (VA) called for independence

Jefferson addressed it to the king and hoped to find some allies

Continental Congresses

Declaration of Independence, 1817 – John Trumbull

The state of a king shuts him from the world, yet the business of a king requires him to know it thoroughly; wherefore the different parts, unnaturally opposing and destroying each other, prove the whole character to be absurd and useless.

--Thomas Paine

Advantages disadvantages

British Strengths

population—7.5 million

British treasury

greatest military on planet

greatest navy

50,000 regulars in army (avg. 10 yrs. exp.)

50,000 loyalists in colonies

Indian allies

British Weaknesses

Irish discontent kept troops in Britain

British sympathy (Burke)

poor leadership (did not respect American militia)

Howe, Burgoyne, Cornwallis

Armed Neutrality, 1780

long supply lines

American Strengths

Population—2.5 million

great leaders (Washington, Franklin)

European aid (France, Spain, Netherlands)

defensive war – just had to fight until British quit

short supply line

no urban center

moral advantage

American Weaknesses

little unity

weak government

weak economy

little industry

unreliable army


The war

Bunker Hill, 1775

costly British victory made the British more cautious

Invasion of Canada, 1776

took Montreal but failed to get Canada to join the colonies

Trenton, 1776

winter win over Hessians

much needed colonial victory

Saratoga, 1777

Burgoyne surrendered to militia

kept British from dividing colonies along Hudson

Franco-American Alliance

France entered the war in 1778

Spain and the Netherlands entered as France’s allies

Yorktown, 1781

Cornwallis surrendered to French and American troops

John Paul Jones

attacked British merchant ships

beat the Serapis with the Bonhomme Richard

300 of 375 Americans died

George Rogers Clark

led 175 Virginian volunteers to attack British posts along the Ohio River in KY and IL

Joseph Brandt

Mohawk chief who led four Iroquois tribes loyal to British during the war

Treaty of Paris, 1783

France, America, and Britain all wanted to stop fighting

Spain wanted to keep going (Gibraltar)

British gave the US all territories west to the Great Lakes

the US agreed to treat the loyalists well

The War

“I have not yet begun to fight!”

  • US Casualties

    • 6,824 killed

      • 8,445 wounded

      • 18,500 non-combat deaths

    • Smallpox epidemic—130,000

      • Washington had troops inoculated

A firm league of friendship 1781 1789

Articles of Confederation

Richard Henry Lee proposed it

2nd Continental Congress wrote it in 1777

all 13 colonies required to ratify

12 did by 1779


Maryland ratified in 1781

insisted other seven states give up their land west of Appalachians

could be used to unfairly pay state debts

Annapolis Convention, 1786

in 1785, VA and MD met about their border

five states met at Annapolis, MD to discuss weakness of Articles

recommended all the states meet to revise the Articles

twelve states met at Philadelphia in 1787 (Constitutional Convention)

What the Articles could do:

borrow money

declare war

sign treaties

2/3 vote to pass laws

9 states (each state got one vote)

13 votes to make amendments

create new states

What it could NOT do:

tax the states

raise an army

no president

no judicial branch (just state courts)

settle interstate conflict

A Firm League of Friendship1781-1789







Life liberty happiness 1776 1789

Problems with Freedom

Britain armed the Indians on the North

Spain controlled New Orleans

France wanted its loans repaid

pirates in North Africa attacked shipping

too weak to fight & too poor to bribe

State Conventions, 1776

states asked to rewrite their constitutions

in 1780 MA called for special convention for ratification

changes in the constitution could only happen at another convention

capitals moved inland in many states – NH, NY, VA, SC, GA

Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom

written by Jefferson

stopped public tax money going to any church

separation of church and state

Treaty of Stanwyx, 1784

Iroquois forced to cede all territories in the Ohio River Valley

Land Ordinance, 1785

divided western territory in 6-mile plots

land sold to pay national debt

one part set aside for education

Northwest Ordinance, 1787

est. process for forming new states

population = 60,000

constitution submitted to Congress

no slaves

new states equal to original ones

Shays’ Rebellion, 1787

Capt. Daniel Shays led revolt of veteran-farmers in MA against banks

burned courthouses and threatened banks

national government unable to deal with it

Life, Liberty, Happiness1776-1789

Constitutional convention 1787

Constitutional Convention

after five days they agreed to replace the Articles (10 walked out)

met from May-Sept. 1787


Virginia Plan

James Madison (VA, PA, MA)

three branches of govt.

bicameral legislature with # of delegates by population

Congress to choose President and judiciary

New Jersey Plan

William Patterson (NJ, DE, MD, NY)

unicameral legislature

one vote per state

Great Compromise

Roger Sherman (CT)


Senate—two per state

3/5 Compromise

slaves counted 3/5

got more seats in House

had to pay higher share of taxes

Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise

Congress could NOT tax exports

not allowed to touch the slave trade for 20 years


39 at convention signed it (3 refused)

Constitution taken back to the states for approval

needed 9 of 13 states to approve it

Federalists (Pro-Constitution)

efficient national government

Hamilton, Madison, Washington, Franklin

Federalist Papers

Anti-Federalists (Anti-Constitution)

keep Articles, wanted Bill of Rights

Henry, Adams, Hancock

Constitutional Convention, 1787

The constitution


power shared between the national and state governments

Supremacy Clause

national law superior to state law

laws must obey Constitution

Elastic Clause

Congress has right to pass all laws “necessary and proper” for its duties

Checks and Balances

Executive Branch (President)

enforces law

leads military

makes appointments

Legislative Branch (Congress)

makes laws

can change Constitution

controls money

can impeach President

Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)

interprets law

can throw out bad law

Bill of Rights

Anti-Federalists proposed over 200 amendments to restrict the central government

Congress proposed 12 submitted by Madison in 1789

states ratified 10 of them in 1791

Formal Amendment Process

Proposal -- 2/3 vote in Congress or national convention

Ratification -- 3/4 of state legislatures or 3/4 of state conventions

Original Ten Amendments

religion, press, and speech

bear arms

no quartering troops

no search and seizure


public trial and attorney


cruel/ unusual punishment

rights of people

rights of states

The Constitution

Reserved Powers

Delegated Powers



Washington s administration 1789 1793

First Presidency

the new Congress met in NYC in March 1789

Washington elected unanimously by electoral college

John Adams—Vice President

second most electoral votes

Judiciary Act, 1789

six justices in Supreme Court (there are nine today)

thirteen district courts and three circuit courts

attorney general

Eleventh Amendment, 1795

Supreme Court ruled in Chisholm v. Georgia that residents of one state could sue another

this amendment reversed the court’s decision

First Cabinet

advisors appointed by Washington

not mentioned in Constitution

Thomas Jefferson—Secretary of State

Alexander Hamilton—Secretary of Treasury

Henry Knox—Secretary of War

Edmund Randolph—Attorney General

John Jay—Supreme Court Chief Justice

Washington’s Administration1789-1793


Hamilton s plan 1790

1. “funding at par”

the national debt—$54 million

continentals had fallen to 10-15 cents per dollar

Hamilton promised to buy them at face value

speculators bought up all the paper currency

2. “assumption”

the states’ debts—$21.5 million

Southern states had already paid off their debts

Virginia got the capital in D.C.

3. Bank of United States, 1791

Hamilton wanted a powerful bank to help his financial plan

Jefferson against it

led to the formation of political parties

Raising Revenues

tariffs/custom duties

protect young American businesses from foreign competition

excise taxes (on production)

7¢ per gallon on whiskey

government bonds

sales of national government lands

Hamilton’s Plan, 1790

Washington s administration 1793 1797

Whiskey Rebellion, 1794

many uprisings over taxes

largest in PA over whiskey tax

Washington led 13,000 federal troops to stop it

3 killed, 2 pardoned

Neutrality Proclamation, 1793

despite 1778 Franco-American alliance Washington wanted to avoid war in Europe

French Revolution in 1789 led to Napoleonic Wars in Europe

Washington called for Americans to avoid taking sides

Jay’s Treaty, 1794

British agreed to hand over forts and pay damages

British were impressing sailors and arming Indians

Jay kissed Queen’s hand—seen as betrayal of American and France

Farewell Address, 1796

Washington warned against

entangling foreign alliances

political parties

Washington = presidency

two-term tradition held until 1930s

still ranked in top three presidents

Washington’s Administration1793-1797



Adams administration 1797 1801

XYZ Affair, 1797

Americans sent to talk to French minister

asked to pay $250,000 bribe and give France a loan

offended Americans led by John Marshall go home

unofficial war began between U.S. and France

Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798

critics of Adams faced imprisonment

many Republicans sent to jail

naturalization changed from 5 to 14 years

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798

VP Jefferson anonymously criticized Adams

Compact Theory = states formed Union

have right to question national laws

states may void “bad” federal legislation = nullification

Convention of 1800

Napoleon and Adams met to end the Franco-American alliance

cost Adams his political career

ended last foreign alliance until WWI

Adams Administration1797-1801


The electoral college
The Electoral College


Electoral College

  • each State has as many electors (voters) as senators and representatives

    H + S = E

  • each elector gets two votes one for the President and one for the Vice President

  • the elector is technically not bound to vote for the candidate the people of his/her state chose

  • in many elections, electors have gone maverick

  • the winner must get more than half the votes

  • the second most votes becomes VP

    • changed in 12th Amendment

      Plan B

  • if no one gets a majority in the electoral college

  • House elects the President and each state gets 1 vote

  • Senate elects VP

  • this happened in 1800 and 1824

  • it has almost happened many times

    • 1876, 1960, 2000












12th Amendment changes Electoral College!!