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Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes. Brittle vs. Ductile Deformation. Brittle. Ductile. Bends when stressed. Breaks when stressed. Brittle vs. Ductile Deformation. Deformation is dependent on: 1. Temperature (Cold or Hot) 2. Composition (Soft or Hard) 3. Strain Rate (Fast or Slow).

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Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

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  1. Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

  2. Brittle vs. Ductile Deformation Brittle Ductile Bends when stressed • Breaks when stressed

  3. Brittle vs. Ductile Deformation Deformation is dependent on: 1. Temperature (Cold or Hot) 2. Composition (Soft or Hard) 3. Strain Rate (Fast or Slow)

  4. Brittle vs. Ductile Deformation How does the Milky Bar deform when stressed? a. What if we froze it? b. What if we heated it?

  5. Plate Tectonics

  6. Plate Tectonics • Crust – Uppermost part of the Earth • Lithosphere – Crust and Upper Part of Mantle • Mantle • Core Convection

  7. Major Plates • Major Plates • North American • South American • Eurasian • African • Pacific • Antarctic • Indoaustralian • Others to note • Juan de Fuca • Nazca • Arabian • Caribbean

  8. Types of Plate Boundaries • Divergent (Tension) • Mid-Ocean Ridges • East Pacific Rise • Mid-Atlantic Ridge • Convergent (Compression) • Subduction Zone • Cascade Mountains • Himalayan Mountains • Transform (Shear) • San Andreas Fault

  9. Divergent Boundaries • Mid Ocean Ridges http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-ctk4KR-KU

  10. Convergent Boundaries • Subduction Zone – One Plate goes under the other plate

  11. Convergent Boundaries • Subduction – Ocean/Continental – Andes

  12. Transform Boundaries • Shear motion • Plates slide past each other • San Andreas Fault

  13. Western UShas all three!

  14. Earthquakes • Occur on Faults • a break in the rock of the crust where rock surfaces slip past each other (displacement has occurred) • Measured on the Moment Magnitude Scale • Logarithmic scale • Change 1 magnitude - 32 times more energy

  15. Earthquakes

  16. Earthquakes • Focus (hypocenter) - the location inside the earth where the first rupture of the earthquake took place • Epicenter- the point on the Earth’s surface that is directly above the focus (hypocenter)

  17. Faults - Brittle • Hanging Wall(Top)/Foot Wall(Bottom) • Normal Faults • Reverse Faults • Thrust Faults • Strike-Slip Faults • Left and right lateral

  18. Models of Faults High Fives

  19. Folds - Ductile • Anticline – oldest rocks in the middle • Syncline – youngest rocks in the middle

  20. California Seismicity http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqscanv/

  21. California Seismicity

  22. Seismic Waves

  23. Seismic Waves

  24. Fold and Fault Model • Compression! • What types of faults will we see? • What else do you see?

  25. Earthquake Preparedness • Have a pair of shoes next to the bed • Due to broken glass from windows or other debris • Create Post-Disaster Kit • One at home and one in your car • Drop, Cover, Hold On • Do not run to the doorway, find something to get underneath • Don’t forget about aftershocks! • K-12 Earthquake Lesson Plans http://www.scec.org/education/k12/eclakit/index.html

  26. Tsunamis • A tsunami is a series of sea waves most commonly caused by an earthquake beneaththe sea floor • In the open ocean, tsunami waves travel at speeds of up to 600 miles per hour • The first wave is often not the largest • Successive waves may be spaced many minutes (up to 30-40 mins) apart and continue arriving for a number of hours

  27. Tsunamis

  28. Tsunamis • Since 1812, the California coast has had 15 tsunamis with wave heights higher than three feet; seven of these were destructive • The worst tsunami resulted from the 1964 Alaskan earthquake and caused 12 deaths and at least $17 million in damages in northern California (2011 tsunami’s damages have not been totaled yet)

  29. What to do! • If you feel a serious earthquake, and you are near the shoreline: • Get inland and up as soon as possible. • 100 ft in elevation or higher • 2 miles or more inland • If the tide recedes, get away fast. • Inform others to get to safety

  30. Forces • F=ma • Force = mass * acceleration • Units: • N (Newtons) = kg * m/s2 • 1 Kilogram = 2.2 lbs • 1 Meter = 3.28 feet = 100 cm = 1000 mm • Gravity = 9.8 m/s2

  31. Forces • Forces have both magnitude (size) and direction • Unequal forces will cause a change in velocity

  32. Forces • Examples: • Box on table (steady state) • Box in hand (steady state) • Box in hand (change in forces) • Pushing a large box (static and kinetic friction) • Tension • Compression

  33. Forces • Examples: • Strike-slip faults: Stick slip • Forces and friction • Normal faults: • Tension • Reverse faults: • Compression

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