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The War in the Pacific. Chapter 25 Section 3. Objective & Do Now. Objective: Understand the war strategy employed in the Pacific theater of war Do Now: Should the US use Atomic weapons to defeat its enemies?. I the Allies Stem the Japanese Tide A. Japanese Advances.

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the war in the pacific

The War in the Pacific

Chapter 25 Section 3

objective do now
Objective & Do Now


Understand the war strategy employed in the Pacific theater of war

Do Now: Should the US use Atomic weapons to defeat its enemies?

i the allies stem the japanese tide a japanese advances
I the Allies Stem the Japanese TideA. Japanese Advances
  • 6 months after PH, Japanese took over much of Asian mainland along w/ many island nations
  • Gen. MacArthur & his troops are forced to retreat from the Philippines but proclaims “I shall return”
  • Japanese empire dwarfed that of Hitler’s Europe
b us retaliation
B. US Retaliation
  • B-52 bombers take off from aircraft carrier for Tokyo and bomb cities, factories, oil tanks, etc.
    • Doolittle Raids
  • Amer & Aussi fleet intercept Japanese strike aimed for Australia
    • All fighting done by carrier based planes (opposing ships never saw each other)east. New type of naval warfare
    • Allies lost more ships but Japanese ran out of enough fuel
c the battle of midway
C. The Battle of Midway
  • Commander of US forces in Pacific learns of Japanese invasion force heading towards Midway= strategic island in the Pacific
  • Prepares troops on island to surprise Japanese
    • Orders to “inflict maximum damage on enemy
  • Japanese lose irreplaceable war ships
  • Americans “avenge Pearl harbor”
d island hoping
D. Island Hoping
  • Pacific theater was one of scattered islands across thousands of miles of ocean
  • MacArthur implements Island Hoping strategy
    • troops would attack and seize only certain strategic Japanese held islands, rather than trying to recapture all of them
  • Goal= go from island to island to come w/in striking distance from Japan
    • Attack garrisons to cut off supplies & reinforcements
    • Seize airstrips to help support the next Allies advancement

1st American land offensive was in Guadalcanal

    • Guadalcanal marks Japans 1st defeat on landUS troops continue to leapfrog towards Japan

  • Japanese threw their entire fleet into the battle of Leyte Gulf
    • Test new Kamikaze (“divine wind”)= suicide plane attacks
    • Significance= from then on, the Imperial army played only minor role in defense of Japan

American troops then turn their attention to the island of Iwo Jima

    • Iwo Jima was critical to US as a base from which heavily loaded bombers could reach Japan
    • However, it was the most heavily defended (tunnels and caves)
  • Okinawa now the only obstacle between Allies and final assault on Japan
ii the atomic bomb ends the war a the battle for okinawa
II the Atomic Bomb ends the WarA. the battle for Okinawa
  • FDR dies after a stroke leaving Harry Truman as Pres.
  • Battle at Okinawa is Japan’s last defensive outpost
    • Faced even more opposition than iwo Jima110,000 American casualties
  • Okinawa was scary foretaste of what allies were to expect to encounter on Japanese home islands

b the manhattan project
B. The Manhattan Project
  • Not long after Truman takes office he is informed that the US is months away from having an atomic bomb
  • Scientists led by J. Robert Oppenheuimer create the actual bomb
  • First tests took place in New Mexico more powerful than they had expected
c to bomb or not to bomb
C. To Bomb or not to Bomb
  • Scientists who creates bomb signs petition arguing it would be immoral to drop bomb w/o warning
    • Some suggest demonstrating bombs force to Japanese officials to convince them to surrender
  • Interim Committee formed to discuss use of Atomic bomb
    • Oppenheimer outlines prob. w/ test explosions
      • Nothing less than dropping on city would lead to surrender
      • Test might be a dud
      • Japanese might shoot down delivery plane or move POW’s to test area
  • Convinced by op.decide to drop w/o warning
iii rebuilding for peace a preparation for peace
III Rebuilding for PeaceA. Preparation for Peace
  • FDR, Churchill, & Stalin met at Yalta Conference
    • Create the UN based on principles of Atlantic Charter
    • Stalin promises to fight against Japan after defeat of Germany and hold free elections in any Soviet held territory in return for 2 islands
  • UN agree on charter and establish General Assembly= made up of all member nations which serves as “town meeting of the world”
    • 11 member security council held the real power (GB, US, SU, France, & China) given permanent seats on council
    • Any permanent member had the power to veto any council action
  • FDR, Churchill, & Stalin meet in Potsdam to decide how to eliminate the Nazi regime & decide on stern justice for all war criminals
b nuremburg war trials
B. Nuremburg War Trials
  • Potsdam ConferenceGermany divided into 4 zones (GB, US, France, &SU)
    • Berlin, located in SU terr., was divided into another 4 zones shared by occupying powers
  • Nuremburg Trials= international tribunal representing 23 nations tried 22 Nazi leaders
c occupying japan
C. Occupying Japan
  • Japan occupied but US forces under MacArthur
    • Japanese including PM Hideki Tojo were put to trial
  • MacArthur reformed Japanese econ by introducing free –market practicesecon. Recovery
    • Also worked to transform gov’tnew constitution granting women suffrage
  • Until this day constitution known as MacArthur Constitution