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War in the Pacific. Chapter 17, Section 3. Japanese Advances. Japan advances to Pacific Islands December 1941 – Japan invades the Philippines US forced to retreat General Douglas MacArthur commander of Allied forces in the Pacific. Battle of the Coral Sea. May 1942

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war in the pacific

War in the Pacific

Chapter 17, Section 3

japanese advances
Japanese Advances
  • Japan advances to Pacific Islands
  • December 1941 – Japan invades the Philippines US forced to retreat
  • General Douglas MacArthur commander of Allied forces in the Pacific
battle of the coral sea
Battle of the Coral Sea
  • May 1942
  • 5 Day battle to stop Japan from advancing to Australia
  • All fighting done with airplanes taking off from aircraft carriers
  • First time Japanese invasion had been stopped and turned back.
battle of midway
Battle of Midway
  • Midway – strategic island northwest of Hawaii
  • Americans cracked Japanese code and knew of Midway attack in advance
  • Americans led surprise attack on Japanese fleet headed to Midway
  • Turning point in the Pacific War
  • Allies start Island Hopping
allies move forward
Allies Move Forward
  • Island Hopping – Allies’ strategy of moving towards Japan by invading and conquering one island at a time.
japanese defense
Japanese Defense
  • Kamikaze – suicide-plane attacks
  • Americans watched with a “strange mixture of respect and pity”
iwo jima
Iwo Jima
  • March 1945
  • Iwo Jima would be a critical base for the US to arm bomber planes that could reach Japan.
  • Japanese troops dug in deep in the caves of the island
  • Americans lost 6,000 marines
  • Of the 20,700 Japanese, 200 survived
okinawa
Okinawa
  • April 1945
  • Okinawa was the last major stand-off for the Japanese
  • Foreshadowed what an invasion of Japan’s home islands would be
  • Prediction of over 1.5 million Allied lives lost in an invasion of Japan
manhattan project
Manhattan Project
  • Robert Oppenheimer – developer of Atomic Bomb
  • July 16, 1945 – 1st testing of the Atomic Bomb
  • Truman saw it as a military weapon to end a war with the fewest American casualties
little boy
Little Boy
  • Aug 9, 1945 – Little Boy dropped Hiroshima
  • Important Japanese military center
  • Flattened city in 43 seconds
fat man
Fat Man
  • August 9, 1945 – Fat Man dropped on Nagasaki
slide19

As the bomb fell over Hiroshima and exploded, we saw an entire city disappear. I wrote in my log the words: “My God, what have we done?”

-Capt. Robert Lewis, US Army Air Corps

v j day
V-J Day
  • September 2, 1945 – Japan surrenders on the US Battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay
  • V-J Day – Victory in Japan Day
rebuilding
Rebuilding
  • Yalta Conference
  • February 1945 – Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet in Yalta
  • “Big Three”
  • Divided Germany into occupied zones
  • Stalin agrees to join war against Japan.
rebuilding1
Rebuilding
  • Nuremberg Trials
  • Top German officials go on trial for war crimes
  • 12 are executed, 12 are imprisoned
  • Established principle: Individuals responsible for own actions, even in times of war. Can’t say “I was only following orders.”
rebuilding2
Rebuilding
  • Japan occupied for 7 years
  • General MacArthur oversaw re-building and writing of a new constitution
    • Women Suffrage
    • Basic Freedoms guaranteed
pop culture
Pop Culture

Andrew Sisters – Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy

economic gains
Economic Gains
  • US emerges as dominant economic and military power in the world
  • Unemployment falls to 1.2 % in 1944
  • Women gained entry into jobs
population shifts
Population Shifts
  • Mass movement of African Americans out of the South
  • Towns with defense industries saw populations double and triple almost overnight
social adjustments
Social Adjustments
  • Mothers struggle to raise children alone
  • GI Bill – Servicemen's Readjustment Act
    • Provided education and training for veterans paid for by the government
    • Federal loan guarantees to veterans to buy homes, farms, or businesses
civil rights protests
Civil Rights Protests
  • African American workers increased, so did their expectation of fair treatment
  • 1942 – James Farmer founds CORE
    • Congress on Racial Equality
  • 1943 – Racial violence sweeps through the country, Detroit, MI
    • Three day riot over racial tensions
    • Roosevelt sends federal troops to end conflict
tensions in los angeles
Tensions in Los Angeles
  • Mexican Americans experienced tensions
  • “Zoot Suit” Riots – Summer 1943
    • Riots between sailors and Mexican Americans
internment of japanese americans
Internment of Japanese Americans
  • Fear and uncertainty caused prejudice against Japanese Americans
  • Internment – confinement of Japanese Americans into government camps
  • Feb 19, 1942 – Roosevelt signs order removing Japanese Americans from CA, WA, OR, and AZ
  • About 2/3rds were Nisei, or Japanese people born in this country of parents who emigrated from Japan
financing the war
Financing the War
  • Paying for the war was a concern
  • Higher taxes paid for 41% of the increased spending
  • The government started Deficit spending (spending of borrowed money)
financing the war1
Financing the War
  • The government borrowed money
    • Banks
    • Investors
    • War Bonds
patriots
Patriots
  • Many Americans got personally involved in the war effort by participating in activities
    • Recycling
    • Conservation
    • “Victory Gardens”- grew food to make up for the food sent to the soldiers
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