The Civil War. Chapter 11 Section 1 & 2. Objectives and Why it Matters. The 13 th Amendment abolished slavery forever Power of the Federal Government was strengthened. . Economy. Northern Banks loaned the federal government money by buying government bonds.
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Chapter 11 Section 1 & 2
The Confederacy’s financial situation was not good to start, and it continued to worsen
As the war began, there were many Republicans and Northern Democrats who challenged Lincoln’s policies
In 1862, Congress introduced a militia law that required states to use conscription; the drafting of people for Military Service, to fill their regiments. Also, people could be paid to fill military service for someone else. Example; a wealthy land owner could “hire” a poorer neighbor to go into the military in his name. For payment, the landowner would agree to take care of their land and family.
To enforce the militia law Lincoln suspended the Writs of Habeas Corpus: A writ of habeas corpus is used to bring a prisoner or other detainee (e.g. institutionalized mental patient) before the court to determine if the person's imprisonment or detention is lawful.
The South’s government was weak because President Davis and the Constitution emphasized state’s rights, which limited the central government and interfered with Davis’s ability to conduct the war.
The United States wanted Europeans to respect the Union Navy’s blockade of Southern Ports
The summer and fall before the war began, there had been a bigger than usual cotton crop that had shipped to Britain. Britain had a surplus of cotton, so the threat to not have any cotton shipped to them backfired on the South. When the textile mills did need cotton again, they turned to their Empire and started getting cotton from Egypt. Other factories that had used cotton in the past, changed to making woolens, weapons or ships.
Instead of standing in a line, troops defending positions in the Civil War began to use trenches and barricades to protect themselves.
Attrition: The wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of soldiers and resources meant that the armies had to keep replacing their soldiers.
Proposed by General Winfield Scott, this was a blockade of Confederate ports, sending gunboats down the Mississippi River to divide the Confederacy and keep supplies from making it to the Confederate troops.
Confederate reinforcements at the First Battle of Bull Run were led by Thomas J “Stonewall” Jackson
He became one of the most effective commanders in the Confederate Army.
By spring of 1862, The Union Navy has blockaded all Confederate ports except for Charleston, South Carolina, and Wilmington, North Carolina.
The building of the CSS Alabama in Britain, further strained relations between the US and Britain.
In February, 1862, Union General Ulysses S. Grant began a campaign to control the Cumberland River and the Tennessee River. He believed that if he controlled the rivers it would cut Tennessee in two and would give the Union a river route deep into Confederate territory.
The Battle of Shiloh stunned people in both the North and the South because of the number of troops that had been killed or wounded. Newspapers demanded that Grant be replaced, but Lincoln responded “I can’t spare this man; he fights”.
Lee’s plan is written down and is wrapped around some cigars. It falls out of a courier’s pocket (he was taking the plans to another commander) and a Union Soldier finds the cigars and ultimately the note. He gives it to McClellan. McClellan, wastes over 18 hours trying to see what Lee is going to do instead of attacking. There is a Confederate spy in McClellan’s regiment who is able to get word to Lee that McClellan knows his plan. Lee has enough time to change his plan of attack.
The North decided to wait and see how the war progressed, and the South once again lost its best chance at gaining any overseas help.
In 1863, President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” Nonetheless, the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in the nation. Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment in order to guarantee the abolishment of slavery.