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The Cold War Begins. Separation of Berlin

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the cold war begins

The Cold War Begins

Separation of Berlin

The separation of Berlin began in 1945 after the collapse of Germany. The country was divided into four zones, where each superpower controlled a zone. In 1946, reparation agreements broke down between the Soviet and Western zones. Response of the West was to merge French, British, and American zones in 1947.

The West wanted to revive the German economy and combine the three western zones into one area. Soviet Union feared this union because it gave the one combined zone more power than its zone. On June 23, 1948, the western powers introduced a new form of currency into the western zones, which caused the Soviet Union to impose the Berlin Blockade one day later. After Germany was divided into two parts, East Germany built the Berlin Wall to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the west. The wall physically divided the country into eastern communism and western democracy. Many East Germans tried to escape to the west because it was economically prosperous and granted its citizens more freedoms.

The Berlin Wall is the climax to the separation of Berlin. It was built on the night of August 12 with barbed wire entanglements that stretched along the thirty mile line that divided Berlin.

the yalta conference
The Yalta Conference

Yalta Conference

  • An agreement to divide Germany into four separate zones of occupation, controlled by the U.S., Britain, France, and the U.S.S.R.
big winnie winston churchill
Big Winnie – Winston Churchill
  • June 4, 1940 "We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender."
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the iron curtain divides europe
The “Iron Curtain” Divides Europe.
  • Stalin did not keep his promise to allow free elections in Eastern Europe. He set up puppet governments in Eastern Europe thereby turning these nations into Soviet satellites. In 1946 Winston Churchill declared that an “Iron Curtain” had descended on Europe.
winston churchill
Winston Churchill
  • March 5, 1946 "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent."('Iron curtain' previously had been applied by others to the Soviet Union or her sphere of influence, by Churchill himself in a cable to President Truman on June 4, 1945.)