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Lab 4 ZigBee & 802.15.4 with PICDEM Z Boards. 55:088 Fall 2006. Everyone has heard of 802.11 (Wi-Fi)…. IEEE 802.11 features: Ethernet matching speed, Long range(30-90m) Complexity to handle seamless roaming Message forwarding Data throughput of 2-11Mbit/s. …so what is 802.15?.

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Lab 4 ZigBee & 802.15.4 with PICDEM Z Boards


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    1. Lab 4ZigBee & 802.15.4 with PICDEM Z Boards 55:088 Fall 2006

    2. Everyone has heard of 802.11 (Wi-Fi)… • IEEE 802.11 features: • Ethernet matching speed, • Long range(30-90m) • Complexity to handle seamless roaming • Message forwarding • Data throughput of 2-11Mbit/s

    3. …so what is 802.15? • Specializes in Wireless PAN (Personal Area Network) standards • 802.15.1 – a.k.a. Bluetooth(1 Mbps) • 802.15.2 - Deals with coexistence of Wireless LAN (802.11) and Wireless PAN • 802.15.3 - High-rate WPAN standards (Wireless USB) • 802.15.4 – a.k.a ZigBee, low-data rate, low-power networks

    4. What is ZigBee about? • ZigBee can be found in embedded applications requiring low data rates and low power consumption • Fortunately, it is (relatively) low complexity as well • Applications include: • Embedded sensors • Medical devices • Smoke and intruder alarms • Home automation • PC peripherals

    5. ZigBee/802.15.4 features • Transmission range: • 10m – 75m • Three operating bands: • 868 MHz (20kbps) (ch. 0) • 915 MHz (40kbps) (ch. 1-10) • 2.4 GHz (250kbps) (ch. 11-26) * • Three types of networks: • Star * • Cluster • Mesh

    6. Channel Spacing In the 2.4GHz band, each channel is about 3MHz wide

    7. Types of IEEE 802.15.4 nodes • Full Function Devices (FFDs) • Every network needs to have at least one FFD that acts as a Coordinator • FFDs are always powered on • Maintain the state of the network so that RFDs can save battery power • Require more system resources (memory especially) in order to keep track of network state, addresses, routes, messages

    8. Types of IEEE 802.15.4 nodes • Reduced Function Devices (RFDs) • Can only talk with FFDs • Spend most of time powered down, will not receive messages when off • Wake up occasionally and ask to see if they have a packet(s) waiting for them from their parent node (FFD)

    9. Types of ZigBee nodes • Coordinator • This is an FFD • Only one per network, is in charge of forming it • Router • This is an FFD • Optional node that extends the range of the network • End • This is an RFD (usually) the performs monitoring and/or control functions

    10. How does ZigBee form networks? Basic Type: Star Networks

    11. How does ZigBee form networks? More Complex: Cluster Network

    12. How does ZigBee form networks? Very Complex: Mesh Networks

    13. What does this have to do with 55:088? • Lab 4 will be using 802.15.4 radios to create a wireless serial link between two nodes • Each group will be provided with the pair of wireless radios on development boards from Microchip • These kits are NOT to be removed from the lab

    14. PICDEM Z Boards

    15. CC2420 Radio IC 2.4 GHz RF Transceiver Connect to microcontrollers via SPI Comes on a daughter board with the PICDEM Z kit 250 kbps data rate 2.1V – 3.6V 19.7 mA (RX) 17.4 mA (TX)

    16. 18LF4620

    17. 18LF4620 • Microcontroller found with the PICDEM Z kits • Overall, very similar to the 18F452 • Biggest difference that will matter to you is that these operate at 3.3V, instead of 5V • Use the MPLAB and C18 compiler to write code for the PIC

    18. 18LF4620 on the PICDEMZ • Pin 1 = Reset Button • Pin 2-3 = LEDs • Pin 11-12 = Power • Pin 13-14 = 4 MHz XTL • Pin 15-18 = CC2420 • Pin 23-24 = CC2420 • Pin 25-26 = USART • Pin 31-32 = Power • Pin 33-36 = CC2420 • Pin 37-38 = Interrupt Buttons • Pin 39-40 = ICD 2

    19. Lab 4 Overview • A text-input GUI on a computer will connect via RS-232 to one of the PICDEM Z boards (we’ll call this the Base Station) • The other PICDEM Z board will be connected to a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) that will display the text messages from the base station (we’ll call this the Remote Station)

    20. Lab 4 Overview • The remote station will have a couple of “switches” which will either indicate an “on” or “off” state • The switch states need to be sent back to the base station and displayed on the base station GUI

    21. Example Layout

    22. PICDEM Z with LCD

    23. GUI Layout on Base Station • Use whatever language you wish to create the GUI…

    24. Tools that you will use… Microchip has developed code that makes interfacing with the 802.15.4 radios vastly easier This is called the “stack” Template & Your Code ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4

    25. Tools that you will use… In order to utilize the stack: MPLAB v 7.41 C18 Compiler Microchip ZigBee stack v 3.5 ZENA Stack Configuration Tool Look at example files: C:\MpZBee\DemoCoordinator\ C:\MpZBee\DemoRFD\ Do NOT alter files in the Stack directory as this could cause the computer (or worse, the TA) to explode “Look, but don’t touch”

    26. ZENA Found in the MpZBee directory

    27. ZENA

    28. ZENA

    29. Profiles and Endpoints • You will need to select a profile or create your own to detail how components interface with one another • A functional block of code that supports a component is called an endpoint • For the lab, best option is to use the zHCLighting.h profile provided with the stack and make a few changes

    30. Zigbee.def • Created by ZENA • It selects many key parameters that will define how a particular node will operate: • Specify Coordinator, Router, or End Device • Frequencies (channels) to operate on • Power mode • Node address • As well as many other network factors…

    31. zLink.lkr • Created by ZENA • Allocates RAM and ROM • Reserves space on the PIC for the stack (differs for RFD and FFD) • Reserves space on the PIC for received messages and messages to be sent • Don’t modify what ZENA generated

    32. myZigBee.c • Defines ZigBee network parameters • ZigBee Device Object Endpoint • References Zigbee.def to fill out some of the parameters • Suggestion: Compare to the myZigBee.c files found in the demo programs to help understand how endpoints work

    33. How is a message formatted?