EE578 Case Study: IEEE 802.15.4(ZigBee): System Model Abdul-Aziz .M Al-Yami KhurramMasoodOctober 23th 2010
Contents • Motivation • Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) • A Few Sensor Implementations • WSN Types • WSN Applications • WSN Standards • ZigBee Specifications • ZigBee and Other Wireless Technologies • System Model
Motivation • The oil and gas industry includes processes for exploration, extraction, refining, transporting, and marketing petroleum products. • The largest volume products of the industry are fuel, oil and gasoline (petrol). • Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. • As the demand for fossil fuels continues to grow, oil and gas companies will have to develop new technologies and improve operations in order to increase productivity and expand on their current abilities
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) • Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained worldwide attention in recent years, particularly with the rapid growth in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology which has facilitated the development of smart sensors. • These sensors are small, with limited processing and computing resources, and a battery is the main power source in a sensor node. • These sensor nodes can sense, measure, and gather information from the environment and, based on some local decision process, they can transmit the data to the user. • Since the sensor nodes have limited memory and are typically deployed in difficult-to-access locations, a radio is implemented for wireless communication to transfer the data to a base station.
A Few Sensor Implementations Smart Its Project Finger Tip Sensors Tiny Heart Capsule Endoscope JPL Sensor A Bee Tracker
WSN Types (Connectivity-wise) • There are two types of WSNs in terms of connectivity: • Structured and • unstructured. • An unstructured WSN is one that contains a dense collection of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes may be deployed in an ad hoc manner into the field. Once deployed, the network is left unattended to perform monitoring and reporting functions. • In a structured WSN, all or some of the sensor nodes are deployed in a pre-planned manner. • In the unstructured WSN, network maintenance such as managing connectivity and detecting failures is difficult since there are so many nodes. • The advantage of a structured network is that fewer nodes can be deployed with lower network maintenance and management cost. Fewer nodes can be deployed now since nodes are placed at specific locations to provide coverage while ad hoc deployment can have uncovered regions.
WSN Types (Application-wise) *Source: Wireless sensor network survey by Jennifer Yick, BiswanathMukherjee, DipakGhosal
WSN Applications *Source: Wireless sensor network survey by Jennifer Yick, BiswanathMukherjee, DipakGhosal
WSN Standards • Wireless sensor standards have been developed with the key design requirement for low power consumption. • The standard defines the functions and protocols necessary for sensor nodes to interface with a variety of networks. • Some of these standards include IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee), WirelessHART , ISA-SP100
ZigBee • ZIGBEE originally stood for: Zonal Intercommunication Global-standard, where Battery life was long, which was Economical to deploy, and which exhibited Efficient use of resources. • The IEEE 802.15.4 standard was completed in May 2003. • The ZigBee specifications were ratified on 14 December 2004. • The ZigBee Alliance announced public availability of Specification 1.0 on 13 June 2005. • Much research is still going on with ZigBee.
ZigBee Aims Low • Low data rate • Low power consumption • Small packet devices
ZigBee Frequencies • Operates in Unlicensed Bands • ISM 2.4 GHz Global Band at 250kbps • 868 MHz European Band at 20kbps • 915 MHz North American Band at 40kbps
ZigBee and Other Wireless Technologies Source: http://www.zigbee.org/en/about/faq.asp
Current ZigBee Uses • Environmental Monitoring • Agricultural Monitoring • Home Automation Still on Horizon
System Model Central Control Room (CCR) Gateway (G) Gateway (G) Anchor Router (R) Router (R) Router (R) S S S S S