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IEEE 802.15.4 and Zigbee Overview. Topics. 802.15.4 ZigBee Competing Technologies Products Some Motorola Projects. Slide 2. Joe Dvorak, Motorola. 9/27/05. IEEE 802.15.4 Applications Space. Home Networking Automotive Networks Industrial Networks Interactive Toys Remote Metering.

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topics
Topics
  • 802.15.4
  • ZigBee
  • Competing Technologies
  • Products
  • Some Motorola Projects

Slide 2

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

slide3

IEEE 802.15.4 Applications Space

  • Home Networking
  • Automotive Networks
  • Industrial Networks
  • Interactive Toys
  • Remote Metering

9/27/05

Slide 3

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

slide4

Some needs in the sensor networks

Thousands of sensors in a small space  Wireless

but sensors are frequently stand alone Low Power

and sensors are frequently isolatedModerate Range.

Some of the challenges facing the standards committee

Slide 4

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

802 15 4 general characteristics

802.15.4 General Characteristics

  • Data rates of 250 kb/s, 40 kb/s and 20 kb/s.
  • Star or Peer-to-Peer operation.
  • Support for low latency devices.
  • Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability.
  • Low power consumption.
  • Frequency Bands of Operation
    • 16 channels in the 2.4GHz ISM* band
    • 10 channels in the 915MHz ISM band
    • 1 channel in the European 868MHz band.

* ISM: Industrial, Scientific, Medical

Slide 5

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

slide6

802.15.4 / ZigBee Architecture

Applications

ZigBee

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC

  • Packet generation
  • Packet reception
  • Data transparency
  • Power Management

IEEE 802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.4

868/915 MHz

2400 MHz

PHY

PHY

Slide 6

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

slide7

IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview

Operating Frequency Bands

Channel 0

Channels 1-10

2 MHz

868MHz / 915MHz

PHY

868.3 MHz

902 MHz

928 MHz

2.4 GHz

PHY

Channels 11-26

5 MHz

2.4 GHz

2.4835 GHz

Slide 7

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

slide8

IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview

Packet Structure

  • PHY Packet Fields
  • Preamble (32 bits) – synchronization
  • Start of Packet Delimiter (8 bits)
  • PHY Header (8 bits) – PSDU length
  • PSDU (0 to 1016 bits) – Data field

Start of

Packet

Delimiter

PHY

Header

PHY Service

Data Unit (PSDU)

Preamble

6 Octets

0-127 Octets

9/27/05

Slide 8

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

802 15 4 architecture
802.15.4 Architecture

Applications

ZigBee

  • Channel acquisition
  • Contention mgt
  • NIC address
  • Error Correction

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC

IEEE 802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.4

868/915 MHz

2400 MHz

PHY

PHY

9/27/05

Slide 9

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

slide10

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

Design Drivers

  • Extremely low cost
  • Ease of implementation
  • Reliable data transfer
  • Short range operation
  • Very low power consumption

Simple but flexible protocol

Slide 10

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

slide11

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

Typical Network Topologies

9/27/05

Slide 11

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

slide12

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

Device Classes

  • Full function device (FFD)
    • Any topology
    • Network coordinator capable
    • Talks to any other device
  • Reduced function device (RFD)
    • Limited to star topology
    • Cannot become a network coordinator
    • Talks only to a network coordinator
    • Very simple implementation

Slide 12

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

slide13

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

Star Topology

PAN

Coordinator

Master/slave

Communications flow

Full function device

Reduced function device

9/27/05

Slide 13

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

slide14

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

Peer-Peer Topology

Cluster tree

Point to point

Full function device

Communications flow

Slide 14

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

slide15

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

Combined Topology

Clustered stars - for example,

cluster nodes exist between rooms

of a hotel and each room has a

star network for control.

Communications flow

Full function device

Reduced function device

9/27/05

Slide 15

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

slide16

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

General Frame Structure

  • 4 Types of MAC Frames:
    • Data Frame
    • Beacon Frame
    • Acknowledgment Frame
    • MAC Command Frame

9/27/05

Slide 16

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

slide17

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview

Traffic Types

  • Periodic data
    • Application defined rate (e.g. sensors)
  • Intermittent data
    • Application/external stimulus defined rate (e.g. light switch)
  • Repetitive low latency data
    • Allocation of time slots (e.g. mouse)

9/27/05

Slide 17

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

802 15 4 architecture18
802.15.4 Architecture

Applications

  • Network Routing
  • Address translation
  • Packet Segmentation
  • Profiles

ZigBee

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC

IEEE 802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.4

868/915 MHz

2400 MHz

PHY

PHY

Slide 18

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

zigbee stack architecture
ZigBee Stack Architecture

Slide 19

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

typical zigbee enabled device design
Typical ZigBee-Enabled Device Design

Typical design consist of RF IC and 8-bit microprocessor with peripherals connected to an application sensor or actuators

9/27/05

Slide 20

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

wireless technology comparison chart

34KB /14KB

356 mA

Wireless Technology Comparison Chart

Slide 21

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

competing similar technologies
Competing/Similar Technologies
  • Bluetooth
    • http://www.bluetooth.org
    • http://www.bluetooth.com
  • X10
    • Powerline protocol first introduced in the 1970's.
    • http://www.x10.com/technology1.htm
  • Z-wave
    • Proprietary protocol for wireless home control networking.
    • http://www.z-wavealliance.com/
  • INSTEON
    • Peer-to-peer mesh networking product that features a hybrid radio/powerline transmission
    • http://www.insteon.net
  • nanoNET
    • Proprietary set of wireless sensor protocols, designed to compete with ZigBee.
    • http://www.nanotron.com/

Slide 22

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

802 15 4 zigbee products
802.15.4/ZigBee Products

Control4 Home Automation System

http://www.control4.com/products/components/complete.htm

Eaton Home HeartBeat monitoring system

www.homeheartbeat.com

  • Chip Sets
  • Ember, http://www.ember.com/index.html
  • ChipCon, http://www.chipcon.com
  • Freescale, http://www.freescale.com
  • Software, Development Kits
  • AirBee, http://www.airbeewireless.com/products.php
  • Software Technologies Group, http://www.stg.com/wireless/

Slide 23

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

9/27/05

motorola activity
Motorola Activity

NeuRFonTM

  • Implementation of 802.15.4 & ZigBee
  • Aimed at enterprises
    • Asset Tracking
    • Security
    • Public Safety
  • Range: 10m
  • Transmission interval: ~ 4 minutes
  • Nodes move, Controller does not
  • Battery life: 1 week to several years (nodes with 2 AA batteries)
  • Interfaces: machine-only

9/27/05

Slide 24

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

motorola activity25
Motorola Activity

ConformablesTM

  • Implementation of 802.15.4 only
  • Aimed at consumers
    • Home device control
    • Location awareness
    • Personal reminders
  • Range: 1 - 5m
  • Phone is controller
  • Both nodes and can controller move
  • Battery life: ~1 week years (nodes with ~320 mAhr rechargeable battery)
  • Transmission interval: 1 second
  • Interfaces: machine and human

SmartButton

LoBe

Janus

Digital Paperclip

9/27/05

Joe Dvorak, Motorola

Slide 25

more information
More Information
  • IEEE 2003 version of 802.15.4 MAC & Phy standard
    • http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.4-2003.pdf
  • ZigBee Specification
    • http://www.zigbee.org/en/spec_download/download_request.asp
  • 802.15.4 Tutorial
    • http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/pub/2003/Jan03/03036r0P802-15_WG-802-15-4-TG4-Tutorial.ppt
    • Slides 3 – 17 were adapted from this tutorial
  • ZigBee Technology: Wireless Control that Simply Works
    • http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/oct03/articles/kinney/zigbee.htm
  • ZigBee Technology: Wireless Control that Simply Works
    • http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/oct03/articles/kinney/zigbee.htm
  • Home networking with Zigbee
    • http://www.embedded.com//showArticle.jhtml?articleID=18902431
    • Slides 19 – 21 were adapted from this article
  • Can the competition lock ZigBee out of the home?
    • http://www.techworld.com/mobility/features/index.cfm?FeatureID=1809