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3.3 DNA Structure. IB HL Biology. Lesson Objectives. Outline DNA nucleotide structure Outline how nucleotides join Explain how double helix is formed using complementary base pairing Draw and label a simple diagram of DNA DNA extraction activity. DNA.

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3.3 DNA Structure


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    1. 3.3 DNA Structure IB HL Biology

    2. Lesson Objectives • Outline DNA nucleotide structure • Outline how nucleotides join • Explain how double helix is formed using complementary base pairing • Draw and label a simple diagram of DNA • DNA extraction activity

    3. DNA • A molecule that contains the genetic information of all living things • Found in the nucleus of cells, organized into chromosomes • Deoxyribonucleic acid

    4. mRNA • A molecule that relays information from DNA to the rest of the cell • Directs the production of proteins • Ribonucleic acid

    5. Watson and Crick • James Watson and Frances Crick share the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the DNA double-helix (1953) • Used knowledge of other scientists to guide their research

    6. Nucleotides • Molecules composed of three parts • Sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) • Phosphate group • Nitrogenous base (ring structure containing Nitrogen)

    7. Draw

    8. Zoom Science • Size of a nucleotide • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/

    9. DNA Nitrogenous Bases • 4 bases • Cytosine (C) • Guanine (G) • Adenine (A) • Thymine (T)

    10. RNA Nitrogenous Bases • 4 bases • Uracil (U) instead of Thymine

    11. Sugars RNA - ribose DNA - deoxyribose Both are pentose - 5 carbon sugar

    12. Nucleic Acid • A polymer of nucleotides is called a nucleic acid • DNA and RNA are nucleic acids

    13. Covalent Bonds • Join nucleotides together • Covalent bond between sugar and phosphate • Form a backbone Covalent bond

    14. Hydrogen bonds • Join the two DNA strands together • Between nitrogenous bases

    15. DNA • Two strands held in anti-parallel form - the two strands face opposite directions • Complementary - the sequence of one strand determines sequence of other strands (A-T) (C-G) • Forms a double helix

    16. Nelson DNA structure animation

    17. Homework • Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA • Show complementary base pairs • Hydrogen bonds • Covalent bonds making the sugar-phosphate backbone

    18. Homework • Textbook pg. 62 # 6 • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/ • Tour of the basics • What is DNA • Build a DNA molecule Onion DNA Extraction • See lab handout