Region • Read pages 7-11 regarding region. Define these terms in your notes: • Region • Global scale • World region • Sub-regions • Local scale
Chapter 1 population, development, urban, political, economy, culture, gender, food/water
Population Geography • How does population affect an area?
Population • To study population is to study the growth and decline of numbers of people on earth, their distribution across the earth’s surface, age and sex distributions, migration patterns and what makes people move. • Read Population section and fill out w/s. • How large is the population today? • Video clip? • http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/the-magazine/the-magazine-latest/ngm-7billion/
Population Geography • Grab an old honors textbook in the back of the room. It is on the table. • Read the pages below and answer the questions. • Read page 43-46 The Demographic Transition: Will the LDCs Complete it? • What are the differences between the cornucopian and neo-Malthusians? • Which theory do you believe? Why? • How can you relate the 7 billion people video?
Population PyramidWhat can you learn from a Population Pyramid?MDC vs. LDC
Demographic Transition • Stage 1-pre-industrial • Stage 2- transitional • Stage 3- industrial • Stage 4- post-industrial • Subsistence economy vs. cash economy • Page 20 in textbook.
Development • Read page 24-27 regarding Development. • What does HDI stand for and what information does it present? • What are the Millennium Development Goals? What are they trying to do? • HDI • Read pages 35-39, Causes of Disparities. • What is dependency theory? How would the dependency theory explain the disparities between MDCs and LDCs? • Development w/s
Urban Geography • Urbanization: the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result. • Now about half of the world’s population lives in cities; there are more than 400 cities of more than 1 million and 25 cities of more than 10 million. • What does a city look like, what are the layers? Think about Kansas City. • Why do people move to Urban areas? • Push/pull phenomenon (factors) of urbanization p.31
Gender • Gender- indicates how a particular social group defines the differences between the sexes. • Sex- is the biological category of male or female but does not indicate how males or females may behave or identify themselves. • Gender roles- the socially assigned roles for males and females- in different cultural groups. • Glance @ “Gender Issues”
Food/Water • Read the Food p.27 and Water p. 41 section in your textbook and answer the questions below on a sheet of paper. • How have changes in agricultural production over the past 150 years impacted the supply and security of food, and how have they altered the environment? Are the green revolution and genetic modification the solutions to food-supply and environmental problems? • What do you think is the biggest problem with water: usage, access, or quality? Explain your answer. • Green Revolution Example: India
Political GeographyBasic Political Terms • State: an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs. (Country means state as well) • Nation: refers to a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity. • Nation-state: When a nation and a state occupy the same territory • Stateless- nation: some nations do not have a territory, i.e. Kurds and Palestinians. (where are these nations located?)
Forms of Government • Democracy: citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives. • Monarchy: a ruling family headed by a king or queen hold political power and may or may not share the power with citizens bodies. • Dictatorship: an individual or group holds complete political power. • Communism: in this government and economic system, nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government in the name of all the people
Geographic Characteristics of Nations • Three geographic characteristics are very important in describing a country. • Size • Shape • Relative Location- is very important…what countries are you next to, do you have good relations with those countries, resources • Landlocked country: one surrounded by other land and with no direct outlet to the sea.
National Boundaries • Boundaries or borders set the limits of the territory controlled by a state, within its borders; the state can do such things as collect taxes, set up a legal code, and declare an official language. A state may claim all of the resources found within its boundaries • Natural boundaries- based on physical features. What are problems with natural boundaries? • Artificial boundaries- a fixed line generally following latitude and longitude lines.
Regional Political Systems • What regional political systems are seen in the United States or in our own state?
Example of Boundary and Regional Conflict: Iraq • http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17722026
Spread of Democracy • Democratization- the transition toward political systems guided by competitive elections. • Where and why is democracy growing and spreading? What factors are helping, and what factors are hindering democratizations?
Economic Geography • Economy: consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people. • 4 Basic Economic Systems: • Traditional economy: goods and services are traded without exchanging money. “barter” • Command economy: production of goods and services is determined by a central government. • Market economy: production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. “capitalism” • Mixed economy: a combination of command and market economies provides goods and services so that all people will benefit.
Natural Resources • An important part of economic geography is understanding which resources a nation processes. Natural resources are materials on or in the earth, such as trees or coal, that have economic value. • Renewable…can be replaced • Non-renewable…cannot be replaced • Inexhaustible energy sources…unlimited amount, for example sunlight
Economic Support System • Infrastructure- consists of the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education system. • The more you have the more developed your country is.
Measuring Economic Development • Per capita income- the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit. • Geographers also look at the standard of living, who can afford health insurance and level of education. • GNP- gross national product is the total value of all goods and services produced by a country over a year or some other specified period of time. • GDP- gross domestic product is the total value of all good and services produced within a country in a given period of time.
Globalization • Global Economy- includes the parts of any country’s economy that are involved in global flows of resources-mined minerals, agricultural commodities'. manufactured products, money, and people and their ideas. • When did globalization begin?
Multinational Corporations- many times extract resources from other places, make products in factories located where they can take advantage of cheap labor and transportation facilities, and market their products wherever they can make the most profit. • Example…..
Pros and Cons • Read “Workers in the Global Economy: Personal Vignette”. You will read different stories related to the affects of globalization. • After reading the personal vignette discuss at your table the pros and cons of globalization.
World Trade Organization • Supports free trade • Stated mission is to lower trade barriers and establish ground rules for international trade.
Global Climate Change • Terms • Climate Change: a slow shifting of climate patterns due to general cooling or warming of the atmosphere. • Global Warming- which refers to the observed warming of the earth’s surface and climate in recent decades. • Impacted by Greenhouse gases. • Kyoto Protocol • What are the goals of the Kyoto Protocol? • HW: blog assignment • Climate sheet
Physical vs. Human Geography • Physical Geographers are concerned with the processes that shape the earth’s landforms and its climate. • Landforms • Plate tectonics • Climate • Human Geographers are interested in the spatial patterns created by the economic, social and cultural practices of people. • Culture • Values, beliefs, languages, technology
Guns, Germs, and Steel Critical revolutions impacting physical and human geography. - Neolithic Revolution - Industrial Revolution
How does Physical affect Human Geography? • Native Americans reading and question packet. • Topoymns assignment • How does the name of a city/ town highlight their history, physical surroundings, and culture?
The Elements of Culture • Culture: is the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group. • It includes products of human work and thought. • Culture involves the following factors: • Food and shelter • Religion • Relationships to family and others • Language • Education • Security/ protection • Political and social organizations • Creative expression
Society: A group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and culture. • Ethnic group: to refer to a group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage. An ethnic group has an identity as a separate group of people within the region where they live.
Culture and societies are always in the process of changing. • Innovation- taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need • Diffusion- spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior. • Cultural hearth- is a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures. • Exposure to an innovation does not guarantee that a society will accept that innovation. Individuals and societies must decide whether the innovation is useful and consistent with its basic principles. • Acculturation- occurs when a society changes b/c it accepts or adopts an innovation.
Language • Language is one of the most important aspects of culture because it allows the people within a culture to communicate with each other. • Geographers estimate that between 2,500 and 3,500 languages are spoken across the world today. • These languages are put into language families. (Indo-European) • Versions of a language are called dialects. • A dialect reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes. • Give examples of dialects in the United States • What is Language Diffusion? How can Language be diffused?
Religion • Religion: consists of a belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe. Religions establish beliefs and values that define how people worship the divine being or divine forces and how they behave towards each other. • Monotheistic • Polytheistic • Animistic/Traditional • What are the Five Major Religions in the World?
Assignment • What is your Culture? • Remember culture is everything about you…language, food, religion, activities you like to do, traditions, fashion, political views, etc. This is not a heritage/ history paper on your family. This is about you? You might bring up family and heritage only if they impact/shape who you are today. • Due September 16th (Monday)