Age of Absolutism (c. 1600-1789) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Age of Absolutism (c. 1600-1789)

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Age of Absolutism (c. 1600-1789)
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Age of Absolutism (c. 1600-1789)

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  1. Age of Absolutism(c. 1600-1789)

  2. What is Absolutism? • All power invested in one ruler • Product of: • Further centralization of Renaissance monarchies • Desire for order as result of Wars of Religion • Limited by technological constraints, power of nobility, and diversity of national populations

  3. Philosophy of Absolutism • Bodin -- Rationalism • Bossuet -- Divine Right of Kings • Hobbes -- Social Contract • Filmer -- Patriarchy

  4. Common Features • Strong, ambitious ruling dynasties • Cooptation of the nobility • Control of religious authority • Large, centralized bureaucracy • Large standing army • Increased taxes

  5. Which nations had the largest armies? • Why do Britain and the Netherlands fluctuate?

  6. France: Foundations of Absolutism • Cardinal Richelieu (1624-42) • Strips Huguenots of political/military rights • Builds standing army • Network of spies • **Intendants • Cardinal Mazarin (1642-61) • Faces severe problems: • Foreigner • Considered a scumbag • Inherits problems of Richelieu • The FRONDE (1648-52)--tax revolt by the nobility

  7. The Fronde (1648-52) • Occurred in two waves • 1648 - tax revolt; nobles and peasants join forces • 1650 - nobles of the sword attempt to overthrow the government • Formative experience for Louis XIV • One of series of noble revolts across Europe in late 1640s

  8. Louis XIV (1643-1714) Builds absolute rule upon foundation laid by Richelieu and Mazarin • “one king, one law, one faith” • “L’etat c’est moi” (I am the state) • Bureaucratic control • Co-optation of the Nobility • Religious Uniformity • Mercantilism • Expansion of Military • Propaganda

  9. Bureaucratic Control • Intendants • Bribes of local officials

  10. Cooptation of Nobility • New privileges to nobles • Creation of approx. 20,000 new nobles • Life at Versailles • Kept nobles close/Spied on them • Favors for those who are close to Louis • Extravagant lifestyle bankrupted nobility: they became dependent on Louis for their lifestyle

  11. Religious Uniformity • “Gallican Church”--Louis had say in appt. of bishops in France • Edict of Fontainebleu (1685) • Prohibited Calvinism • 200,000 Huguenots flee France

  12. FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLUE!

  13. FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLUE!

  14. FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLUE!

  15. FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLEU! • FONTAINEBLUE!

  16. Mercantilism Jean-Baptiste Colbert

  17. Military Reforms • Increased size of army • Appointed army and naval officers

  18. Propaganda • Controlled printing presses • Foreign books were made illegal • Stayed out of sight at Versailles • Presented image of self as “Sun King”

  19. Limits of French Absolutism • Half the population didn’t speak “French” • Inadequate infrastructure • Local officials sometimes obstructed policies • Smugglers evaded mercantilist tariffs • Short-term policies • Wars drain treasury • New Nobles loyal to Louis only • Huguenots fled the country

  20. Spain • A Weakened Nation • Economic Problems • Bankruptcy • Weak commercial class • Bloated, overindulgent nobility • Outdated military • Inefficient Government (El Escorial)

  21. Spain • Count de Olivares & Philip IV (1621-65) • Attempted to centralize government • Reforms failed • Nobles too powerful • Expensive, losing wars • Internal revolts +=

  22. Austria • Leopold I (1658-1705) expanded the state • Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) • Consolidation of Hapsburg lands • Weaknesses • Diverse ethnicities, religions, languages • Nobles oversaw courts and police • Local elites retain autonomy and privileges (e.g. Magyars)

  23. Prussia (Brandenburg-Prussia) Prussia = an army with a country • Frederick William -- “Great Elector” (1640-88) • Large standing army • General War Commissariat • 1st modern civil service in Europe • State officials supervise tax collection • “Service State” = Gov’t agreed to protect nobles’ rights to serfs in exchange for nobles’ surrender of their political powers

  24. Johnny 5 says: “the Prussian nobles were known as JUNKERS”

  25. Frederick William I (1713-1740) • Continued centralization • Developed military power • Military = 50% of budget • 80,000 troops • Royal guard of “giants” • Conversion of industries • All young men register for draft • 1st country with reserve forces

  26. Russia • Ivan IV “the Terrible” (1533-84) • Expanded Eastward • Maintained Loyalty through Fear & Serv(serf)ice State • Time of Troubles (1584-1613) • Boyars battled for control • Michael Romanov named tsar in 1613

  27. Russia • Peter the Great (1689-1725) • Goal to make Russia a world power • Import technology/machinery • Port on the Baltic Sea • Westernize culture • Military Reforms • Administrative Reforms • Religious Reforms • Economic Reforms • Cultural Reforms

  28. Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1713) • Four wars • War of the Triple Alliance (1667) • Dutch War (1672) • War of the League of Augsburg (1689) • War of Spanish Succession (1702) • Treaty of Utrecht (1713) • Allowed Bourbon monarch in Spain • France and Spain agreed to remain separate • Territorial Changes • England emerged as leading naval power