Chapter 4 Age of Absolutism
Europe: 1600 Geography:
The period of time during which kings of western Europe had absolute control over their national governments and societies. What is Absolutism? Divine Right The theory that stated that kings had a god given right to rule their nations as they wished
Section 1: Extending Spanish Power CHARLES V Philip II 1. 1519-1556 Son of Charles V 2. Not the warrior king. 2. Centralized power 3.Constant warfare-with France, Protestants and Ottoman Empire. 3. Absolute Monarch 4. Guardian of Catholic Church 5. Wars-Netherlands, Ottomans, & Spanish Armada 4. Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella 6. Strong Spanish King 5. Religious - Devout Scholarly
REALTY: WEAK RULER aka- Not a “G” Charles V
King Philip had many reasons to want to get rid of Queen Elizabeth: 1. English Privateers attacked Spanish ships. 2. Elizabeth refused to punish privateers and would not return Spanish treasure. 3. Elizabeth was seen as a threat to the Catholic Church. In 1587, King Philip of Spain saw England as a dangerous nuisance.
Spanish Armada Or, war with England Philip II - Sends 130 ships with 20,000 to invade England. - Bad weather scattered the armada. - English ships were faster and lighter.
Cannonade or Broadside Cannonade or Broadside
Effects of Spain's Defeat 1. Spain looses her power and prestige in Europe. 2. She is still powerful, but lacks the ability or desire to rebuild a new fleet and take on England
Spanish Art Art El Greco “The Greek”- Used vibrant colors to demonstrate religious figures.
Spain’s Economic Decline Defeat of Spanish Armada Heavy taxes on middle class Inflation due to gold and silver from the Americas. Expulsion of Jews & Muslims. (Artisans & Merchants)
Section 2: France Under Louis XIV The Sun King SWAG
Background: • 1560-1590 Huguenot Wars • Religious wars between French Catholics & Protestants. • Headed by two nobles families • - Catholic Family - Guises • - Protestant Family - Bourbons • August 24, 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
"Mass slaying of Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris, on St. Bartholomew's Day, August 24, 1572. In order to increase the royal power, the queen mother, Catherine de Medicis, attempted to play the French Roman Catholic faction, led by the house of Guise, against the Huguenot faction, led by the house of Conde.”
Henry IV of France -Protestant/ Huguenots -Became Catholic to Keep the Throne -Edict of Nantes 1598 -Built Royal Bureaucracy -Assassinated in 1610
Edict of Nantes Provided Huguenots 1. The right to practice their own religion. 2. The right to maintain standing armies. 3. The right to fortify their cities.
Louis XIII cont… • Takes throne at 9 years old, after Father’s assassination • Weak ruler as child & teenager as Nobles assert power • 1624, appoints Cardinal Richelieu as Chief Minister • Gives day to day rule to Richelieu • Pampers himself and his court
Richelieu rules France • Ties King and Church closer • Draws Nobles closer to King by position • Declares war against Protestants/Huguenots • Disarmed • Cities fortification removed • Allowed to continue beliefs
Cardinal Mazarin Continues Richelieu program for the new King Louis XIV
~ Fronde ~ A Young Louis XIV is driven from his Palace by Rioters- Nobles, merchants, peasants Mazarin restores order
“I am the State”- Louis XIV THE SUN KING Establishes a new layer of Government- Intendants: *Royal officials recruited from Wealthy Middle Class *Tax Collectors *Recruiters *Policy Implementers -Louis XIV never called the “Estate General” into session
Estates General French Assembly or Parliament
Versailles • Everything was focused on the IMPORTANCE of Louis XIV • Daily Routine became Ceremony – Trumpets and Fanfare • Social and Political Systems all Centered on the King
2,000 acres of grounds • 12 miles of roads • 27 miles of trellises • 200,000 trees • 210,000 flowers planted every year • 80 miles of rows of trees • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal • 12 miles of enclosing walls • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles • 21 miles of water conduits • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed • 26 acres of roof • 51,210 square meters of floors • 2,153 windows • 700 rooms • 67 staircases • 6,000 paintings • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings • 2,100 sculptures • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden Versailles Statistics
Louis XIV Failures Successes 1. Louis engaged in costly wars that had disastrous results. Louis greatly strengthened royal power 2. The French army became the strongest in Europe 2. Rival rulers joined forces to check French ambitions. 3. France became the wealthiest state in Europe. 3. Louis persecuted the Huguenots, causing many to flee France. Their departure was a huge blow to the French economy 4. French culture, manners, and customs became the European standard
King Henry VIIReigned 1485-1509King Henry VIIIReigned 1509-1547King Edward VIReigned 1547-1553Lady Jane GreyProclaimed queen in 1553Deposed after nine days. Executed in 1554.Queen Mary IReigned 1553-1558Queen Elizabeth I Reigned 1558-1603 The Tudor Dynasty
Throne passes to relatives STUARTsNot popular, nor skilful, in dealingwith Parliament.Insisted on DIVINE RIGHT to rule Elizabeth Dies without heir to the throne….
What is Parliament? The Governing Body of England
Dissolved Parliament and collected his own Taxes • This angered the people and nobles James I
Charles I • Follow fathers lead – Divine rule & Absolute Monarch • Imprisons foes with out charges or trial • Summons Parliament to raise Taxes,1628 • Parliament insist he sign Petition of Rights, - He signs
Charles I calls Parliament for taxes War with Scotland • Parliament refuses until he will sign new Petition of Rights • Charles Response by dissolving Parliament. • This action launches the English Civil War 1637English Civil War Begins
Charles I Supporter ~> Cavaliers Parliament Supporters ~>Roundheads Winners
Oliver Cromwell -Puritan -Given Command of Parliament’s Army -Skilled General and Statesman -Has Charles Executed -Rules England as “Lord Protectorate”
After Cromwell’s Death…… • Charles II (1660-1685) learned the lessons of his predecessors – don’t mess with Parliament • James II (1685-1688) was an unpopular king because of his open Catholicism and return to absolute rule.
The Glorious Revolution • James II angered his subjects and clashed with Parliament. (Wanted England to be a Catholic Nation) • Parliamentary leaders invited William and Mary to become rulers of England. • When William and Mary landed in England, James II fled to France. • This bloodless overthrow of a king became known as the Glorious Revolution.