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Caesar Applied Grammar

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  1. Caesar Applied Grammar Practice with subjunctives, sequence of tenses, purpose clauses, cum clauses, gerunds, gerundives, and passive periphrastics

  2. Introduction to the Gallic Wars Section One: The Divisions of Gaul

  3. Exercise 1: Subjunctive Forms • Using the five verbs listed below from the Caesar Introduction to the Gallic War, circle the subjunctives in each list. • Pertineo, pertinēre, pertinui, pertentus • Incolo, incolere, incolui • Gero, gerere, gessi, gestum • Contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus • Specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatus

  4. 1. pertineampertinerepertinuitpertinuisse • 2. incolereincoluntincoluitincolerent • 3. geritgerebatgereremgestumest • 4. contenditcontendissetcontentuseratcontendent • 5. spectaremspectasspectesspectatusesset

  5. Exercise 2 • For each subjunctive from Exercise 1, identify the tense and tell what indicative verbs tenses it would accompany when used in a purpose clause • Example • Incoleret imperfect subjunctive used with perfect, • pluperfect, imperfect

  6. Subjunctive verb tense used with • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. • 6. • 7.

  7. Exercise 3: Gerunds • Pick one of the five verbs and make the gerund. • Write one simple sentence using that gerund in each of the following cases: genitive, dative, accusative, ablative (it’s ok if the sentences are a bit awkward as long as they make sense) • Add an object for each and change the gerund to the gerundive form.

  8. Example • Caesar ascenditcollem ad spectandum. (gerund in the accusative) • Caesar climbed the hill to watch. • Caesar ascenditcollen ad spectandosmilites. (gerundive with object milites in accusative) Caesar climbed the hill to watch the soldiers.

  9. Exercise 4: Subjunctive Clauses • In English, write a purpose clause, a temporal cum clause, a causal cum clause, a concessive cum clause, and a circumstantial cum clause about this passage. Label each and tell what tense of subjunctive you think would be appropriate.

  10. Exercise 5 • Translate the subjunctive sentences below based on the sentence you wrote as a class. Identify the type of clause, the tense of the subjunctive and the indicative, and the time sequence shown.

  11. Book One Passage Two Orgetorix persuades the Helvetians to expand

  12. Exercise 1: Recognition of Subjunctives • For the verbs below, choose the subjunctive forms from each list. • Possum, posse, potui be able, can • Praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestitum surpass, excel • Divido, dividere, divisi, divisum divide • Arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum think • Exeo, exire, exii, exitum go forth • Vagor, vagari, vagatus sum wander

  13. 1. possimpossentpotuitpotest • 2. praestarentpraestititpraestisissentpraestat • 3. dividatdivideretdivisaessetdivisisimus • 4. arbitranturarbitrenturarbitrabanturarbitrabuntur • 5. exit exirentexissent exeunt • 6. vagarenturvagaturvagabaturvagabitur

  14. Exercise 2: Subjunctives in Context • Using the words from exercise 1, find each word in the passage and do the following. • 1. write the word as it appears in the passage each time it appears • 2. Tell whether it is subjunctive or indicative • 3. give the tense and voice ( Watch out for deponents) • 4. If subjunctive, give the main verb and tell the tense relationship.

  15. Exercise 3: Gerunds • Make the gerund for bellor, bellari, bellatus sum. • Find the gerund in the passage. • Identify its case and number • Identify its usage

  16. Exercise 4: application of clauses • Write in English about this passage: • 3 purpose clause • 3 cum clauses • 1 gerund/gerundive in the accusative • 1 gerund/gerundive in the genitive • 2 passive periphrastics

  17. Exercise 5 • Based on the sentences written by the class, translate the sentences below. Identify the types of subjunctives and uses of gerunds and gerundives.

  18. Exercise 6: Gerunds, Gerundives, Passive Periphrastics • Translate each sentence and identify the case of the gerund or gerundive. Tell whether it is a gerund, gerundive, or passive periphrastic. • 1. OrgetorixCaesarioppugnandus est. • 2. Orgetorixcupivitexiresuasterras ad bellandum. • 3. CausāextendarumfiniumOrgetorixconiurationemfecit. • 4. GalliCaesaridividendisunt. • 5. Scribendo Caesar bellum in Galliāexplicavit. • 6. HelvetiipraestiteruntGallisdemonstrandāvirtute • 7. Orgetorixconiurationemfecit ad exiendasangustasterrassuas. • 8. Helvetiiconsiliaceperuntcausābellandi.

  19. Presentational Writing • Required structures: predicate nominative, direct object, adjective modifying a noun, prepositional phrase, infinitive, and relative clause. • Write a LATIN paragraph including the required structures in which you give the following true information: • Who was Orgetorix? • Where did he live? • What did he want to do? • Why did he want to do these things?

  20. Passage Three: A Tale of Two Rivals Pullo and Vorenus

  21. Recognition of Subjunctives • For each verb listed below from the passage, tell whether it is indicative or subjunctive. If it is subjunctive, tell the tense. Give the implied subject for each and state whether the subject would perform or receive the verb. • 1. erant • 2. appropinquarent • 3. habebant • 4. anteferretur • 5. contendebant • 6. pugnaretur • 7. dubitas • 8. iudicabit • 9. dixisset • 10. dant • 11. defigitur • 12 essent • 13. posset • 14. videretur

  22. Practice with Gerunds and Gerundives • Locate all gerunds and gerundives in the passage, tell the case and function and whether it is a gerund or a gerundive.

  23. Application: Translate, identify the subjunctive, and type of clause • 1. Cum Pullo et Vorenusplurimoshostesinterfecissent, ad munitionesrevenerunt. • 2. Vorenus cum inimicusessetPulloi, vitamPullonisservavit. • 3. Cum Pulloeumincitavisset, Vorenus ad pugnammaturavit. • 5. PullopersuasitVorenoutexcederet e munitionibus. • 6. Romani mandatierantuthostesoppugnarent.

  24. Writing Relative Clauses • 1. Pullo and Vorenus who were very brave men competed in rank. • 2. Pullo whose scabbard was turned could not draw his sword. • 3. Vorenus whom Pullo mocked saved him. • 4. When Vorenus who was trying to save Pullo attacked the enemy, he was in great danger. • 5. Pullo for whom there was a great desire to surpass Vorenus jumped into the enemy. • 6. The javelin which has pierced the shield impeded Pullo. • 7. Pullo and Vorenus who were enemies proved their loyalty to Rome by saving each other.

  25. 8. Pullo and Vorenus for whom there was great competition united to defeat the enemy. • 9. Caesar praised Pullo and Vorenus who had shown great bravery and loyalty against the enemy. • 10. Pullo and Vorenus who were enemies were also comrades.

  26. Presentational Writing • Required structures: predicate nominative, direct object, adjective modifying a noun, prepositional phrase, infinitive, and relative clause. • Write a LATIN paragraph including the required structures in which you give the following true information: • Who were Pullo and Vorenus? • What was it necessary for them to do? • How did they help each other? • What was the outcome of their competition?

  27. Passage Four: The Battle with the Nervi

  28. …His rebus cum iteragminisnostriimpediretur, non omittendumsibiconsiliumNerviiexistimaverunt. • Loci naturaerathaec, quem locum nostricastrisdelegerant • Collis absummoaequaliterdeclivis ad flumenSabim, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. • Abeofluminepariacclivitatecollisnascebaturadversushuic et contrarius, passuscirciter CC infimusapertus, absuperiore parte silvestris, ut non facile introrsusperspiciposset • Intra eassilvashostes in occultosesecontinebant; in aperto loco secundumflumenpaucaestationesequitumvidebantur.

  29. Fluminiserataltitudopedumcircitertrium. • Caesar equitatupraemissosubsequebatur omnibus copiis; sed ratio ordoqueagminisaliter se habebat ac Belgae ad Nerviosdetulerant • Nam quod hostibusadpropinquabat, consuetudinesua Caesar VI legionesexpeditasducebat; post eastotiusexercitus impedimenta conlocarat; indeduaelegiones quae proximeconscriptaeeranttotumagmenclaudebantpraesidioqueimpedimentiserant. • Equitesnostri cum funditoribussagittariisqueflumentransgressi cum hostiumequitatuproeliumcommiserunt.

  30. Cum se illiidentidem in silvis ad suosreciperent ac rursus ex silva in nostros impetumfacerent, nequenostrilongius quam quem ad finem porrecta [ac] locaapertapertinebantcedentesinsequiauderent, interim legiones VI quae primaevenerant, operedimenso, castramunirecoeperunt. • Ubi prima impedimenta nostriexercitusabiis qui in silvisabditilatebant visa sunt, quod tempus inter eoscommittendiproeliiconvenerat, ut intra silvasaciemordinesqueconstituerantatqueipsiseseconfirmaverant, subito omnibus copiisprovolaveruntimpetumque in nostros equitesfecerunt.

  31. His facile pulsis ac proturbatis, incredibiliceleritate ad flumendecucurrerunt, utpaeneuno tempore et ad silvas et in flumine [et iam in manibusnostris] hostesviderentur. • Eademautemceleritateadversocolle ad nostra castraatqueeos qui in opereoccupatierantcontenderunt. • Caesariomniauno tempore erant agenda: vexillumproponendum, quod erat insigne, cum ad armaconcurrioporteret; signum tuba dandum; abopererevocandimilites; qui paulolongiusaggerispetendicausaprocesserantarcessendi; aciesinstruenda;militescohortandi; signumdandum.

  32. Quarumrerummagnampartemtemporisbrevitas et incursushostiumimpediebat. • His difficultatibusduae res erantsubsidio, scientiaatqueususmilitum, quod superioribusproeliisexercitati quid fierioporteret non minus commode ipsisibipraescribere quam abaliisdoceripoterant, et quod aboperesingulisquelegionibussingulos legatos Caesar discedere nisi munitiscastrisvetuerat • . Hi propter propinquitatem et celeritatemhostiumnihiliamCaesaris imperium expectabant, sed per se quae videbanturadministrabant.

  33. Caesar, necessariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandosmilites, quam [in] partemforsobtulit, decucurrit et ad legionemdecimamdevenit. • Milites non longioreorationecohortatus quam utisuaepristinaevirtutis memoriam retinerentneuperturbarenturanimohostiumqueimpetumfortitersustinerent, quod non longiushostesaberant quam quo telumadigiposset, proeliicommittendisignumdedit. • Atque in alteram item cohortandicausaprofectuspugnantibusoccurrit.

  34. Temporistantafuitexiguitashostiumque tam paratus ad dimicandum animus ut non modo ad insignia accommodandasedetiam ad galeasinduendasscutisquetegimentadetrahenda tempus defuerit. • Quam quisqueabopere in partemcasudevenitquaeque prima signaconspexit, ad haecconstitit, ne in quaerendissuispugnandi tempus dimitteret.

  35. Identifying Structures • Identify the grammatical structure of each word/phrase below. If it is subjunctive, tell the type of clause. If it is used in a cum clause, tell how to translate cum. If it is a gerund/gerundive, first identify which it is, then the case, reason, object for gerundives, dative of agent for passive periphrastics. Use the charts provided • 1. impediretur • 2. omittendum (esse)

  36. Subjunctives • Word type of clause translation of cum • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. • 6.

  37. Subjunctives • Word type of clause translation of cum • 7. • 8. • 9. • 10. • 11

  38. Gerunds/gerundives • Word gerund/gerundive case reason object agent • 10. • 11. • 12. • 13. • 14. • 15. • 16. • 17. • 18.

  39. Word gerund/gerundive case reason object agent • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. • 6. • 7. • 8. • 9.

  40. Gerunds/gerundives in writing • Write the correct form of the gerund or gerundive for each sentence below. Then translate the sentence. I have given you the infinitive for the gerund/gerundive. • 1. Nervi consiliumceperunt ad ______________ Caesarem. (oppugnare) • 2. Caesar petivit optimum locum _________________. • (pugnare) • 3. Nervi in silvasintrant ___________ causā. (latēre) • 4. Caesar duaslegiones qui conscriptaerantproximedesignat ad _______________________ impedimenta ( protegere)

  41. 5. Equitesproeliumcommiserunt ________________flumine. ( transire) • 6. Legiones VI lectierantcausā _________ castra (munire) • 7. Hostesproeliumcoeperunt _____________ impedimentis. ( oppugnare) • 8. Caesariexercitus ____________ sunt. (servare) • 9. Milites _____________ suntCaesari. ( cohortari) • 10. Caesar multum tempus dederatexercitui (parare).

  42. Presentational Writing • Required structures: predicate nominative, direct object, adjective modifying a noun, prepositional phrase, infinitive, and relative clause. • Write a LATIN paragraph including the required structures in which you give the following true information: • Who was Caesar fighing? • What must Caesar do? • What helped Caesar against the enemy? • What did Caesar do during the battle?

  43. Vocabulary for Batttle against the Nervii

  44. …His rebus cum iteragminisnostriimpediretur, non omittendumsibiconsiliumNerviiexistimaverunt. • Loci naturaerathaec, quem locum nostricastrisdelegerant • Collis absummoaequaliterdeclivis ad flumenSabim, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. • Abeofluminepariacclivitatecollisnascebaturadversushuic et contrarius, passuscirciter CC infimusapertus, absuperiore parte silvestris, ut non facile introrsusperspiciposset • Intra eassilvashostes in occultosesecontinebant; in aperto loco secundumflumenpaucaestationesequitumvidebantur.

  45. Fluminiserataltitudopedumcircitertrium. • Caesar equitatupraemissosubsequebatur omnibus copiis; sed ratio ordoqueagminisaliter se habebat ac Belgae ad Nerviosdetulerant • Nam quod hostibusadpropinquabat, consuetudinesua Caesar VI legionesexpeditasducebat; post eastotiusexercitus impedimenta conlocarat; indeduaelegiones quae proximeconscriptaeeranttotumagmenclaudebantpraesidioqueimpedimentiserant. • Equitesnostri cum funditoribussagittariisqueflumentransgressi cum hostiumequitatuproeliumcommiserunt.

  46. Cum se illiidentidem in silvis ad suosreciperent ac rursus ex silva in nostros impetumfacerent, nequenostrilongius quam quem ad finem porrecta [ac] locaapertapertinebantcedentesinsequiauderent, interim legiones VI quae primaevenerant, operedimenso, castramunirecoeperunt. • Ubi prima impedimentanostriexercitusabiis qui in silvisabditilatebant visa sunt, quod tempus inter eoscommittendiproeliiconvenerat, ut intra silvasaciemordinesqueconstituerantatqueipsiseseconfirmaverant, subito omnibus copiisprovolaveruntimpetumque in nostros equitesfecerunt.

  47. His facile pulsis ac proturbatis,incredibiliceleritate ad flumendecucurrerunt, utpaeneuno tempore et ad silvas et in flumine [et iam in manibusnostris] hostesviderentur. • Eademautemceleritateadversocolle ad nostra castraatqueeos qui in opereoccupatierantcontenderunt. • Caesariomniauno tempore erantagenda:vexillumproponendum, quod erat insigne, cum ad armaconcurrioporteret; signum tuba dandum; abopererevocandimilites; qui paulolongiusaggerispetendicausaprocesserantarcessendi;aciesinstruenda; militescohortandi;signumdandum.

  48. Quarumrerummagnampartemtemporisbrevitas et incursushostiumimpediebat. • His difficultatibusduae res erantsubsidio, scientiaatqueususmilitum, quod superioribusproeliisexercitatiquid fierioporteret non minus commode ipsisibipraescriberequam abaliisdoceripoterant, et quod aboperesingulisquelegionibussingulos legatos Caesar discedere nisi munitiscastrisvetuerat • . Hi propter propinquitatem et celeritatemhostiumnihiliamCaesaris imperium expectabant, sed per se quae videbanturadministrabant.

  49. Caesar, necessariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandosmilites, quam [in] partemforsobtulit, decucurrit et ad legionemdecimamdevenit. • Milites non longioreorationecohortatus quam utisuaepristinaevirtutis memoriam retinerentneuperturbarenturanimohostiumqueimpetumfortitersustinerent, quod non longiushostesaberant quam quo telumadigi posset, proeliicommittendisignumdedit. • Atque in alteram item cohortandicausaprofectuspugnantibusoccurrit.

  50. Temporistantafuitexiguitashostiumque tam paratus ad dimicandum animus ut non modo ad insignia accommodandasedetiam ad galeasinduendasscutisquetegimentadetrahenda tempus defuerit. • Quam quisqueabopere in partemcasudevenitquaeque prima signaconspexit, ad haecconstitit, ne in quaerendissuispugnandi tempus dimitteret.