Lever House • Lever House in New York is an early curtain wall building designed by architects Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill (SOM).
Curtain wall system: • Non load bearing • Multi level spans • Supported by floor framing • Site fabricated / prefabricated • Climate modification • Higher wind loads • Image • Storefront system: • Ingress / egress • Visual connection with street • Security
Terms: • Spandrel glass • Head • Jamb • Sill • Mullin • Storefront system sits at edge of interior floor slab and exterior walk • Level to sloped • Smooth to rough
Framing: • Extruded aluminum • Systematized • Anodized finishes • Glazing: • Tempered glass • Spandrel glass • Tinted glass • Float glass • Laminated glass for security • Insulated glass
Glass Types Tempered Heat-Strengthened Laminated Fire Rated Spandrel Fritted (see TEXT pp. 648- 656)
Laminated Glass • Laminated Glass is made by sandwiching a transparent polyvinyl butyric (PVB) interlayer between sheets of glass bonding the three layers together under heat and pressure. • When laminated glass breaks, the plastic sheet holds the broken glass in place, thus reducing the risk of injury in case of breakage. The Entry canopy at the High Museum is made of laminated glass supported by stainless steel spider fittings that transmit the weight of the roof to cantilevered steel beams.
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Tempered Glass is glass that is reheated and rapidly cooled, which causes it to break into pea-sized pellets.
Heat-Absorbing Glass(actinic glass) is tinted to absorb a high degree of solar radiation, and thus, it transmits less solar heat and glare into building. It is usually bronze, gray, or blue-green in color.
Low E-Glass Glass that has a coating applied on the inside face of double pane insulating glass that restricts thermal energy flow in a specific direction depending on placement INSIDE OUTSIDE
Insulated Glass Glass that increases R-value (insulating value) and prevents condensation from forming on the glass.
Insulated Glass How? Insulating glass (multi-glazing) consists of two or more sheets of glass separated by a hermetically sealed air space to provide thermal insulation, acoustical control, and an absence of condensation. It can be manufactured from almost any type of glass.
Wire Glass • Glass that remains intact and restricts the expansion of fire. • Its made by placing wire mesh in the middle of glass during the manufacturing process.
Glazing • Glazing is the process of placing glass or glazing in windows and making a weather tight joint between the glass and its frame. • Glass panels set into grooves designed to receive them, held in place with glazing beads, points, or clips, and sealed in place with various glazing compounds.
These synthetics are particularly effective in allowing for the thermal expansion and contraction of glass: rubber, neoprene & vinyl
Fritted Glass Glass that has an imprint on the surface with silk screened patterns of ceramic based paint. The paint consist primarily of pigmented glass particles that are called frits. Typical patterns are stripes or dots, but custom designs are easily reproduced.
Curtain Wall System • A curtain wall is an exterior wall system that is attached to the structural framework of a building and that carries no weight other than its own and wind loading that it transfers to the structure.
With aluminum and glass curtainwall systems, the vertical mullions are attached to the floors or beams at every floor in order to carry gravity and wind loads • Attachment devices allow the vertical mullions to be adjusted to provide a perfectly plumb and straight line for the entire height of the building.
sample aluminum curtainwall profiles
Spandrel Glass Opaque glass for covering the bands of wall around the edges of floors in glass curtainwall construction.
Plastic or Acrylic is often used as an alternate material to glass in skylights.
Structural Glass Walls A structural glass wall is made up of tempered glass sheets suspended from special clamps, or spider fittings and are stabilized against wind pressure by perpendicular stiffeners and/or cables. spider fittings- used to hold tempered glass in structural glass walls
Glass Fin System Glass fins used as structural elements to carry glass gravity and wind loads.