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The early Earth

The early Earth

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The early Earth

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  1. The early Earth

  2. Goals To understand: (1) solar nebula theory for formation of Earth, (2) how this led to Earth’s stratification, and (3) methods used to understand Earth’s layering.

  3. Formation of Earth

  4. Age of Earth

  5. Early Earth Hadean Eon and stratification

  6. Early Earth About 4,000-million years ago semi-permanent crust formed

  7. Earth’s layers • Core • Solid inner core • Liquid outer core • Mantle • The upper and lower mantle • The asthenosphere Relative thickness of layers

  8. Earth’s layers The lithosphere • Rigid upper-most mantle • The crust: thin rind of light elements floating on top of Earth.

  9. Relative thickness of Earth’s layers

  10. So, how do we know what the mantle and core are made of?

  11. 1. Composition of meteorites Iron-nickel alloy Magnesium-silicate rocks

  12. 2. Inclusions of mantle in volcanic rocks The mantle

  13. 3. Fragments of uppermost mantle trapped in mountain belts The mantle in Oman

  14. 4. Behavior of sound waves from earthquakes & large explosions Structure of fetus modeled from sound velocities Structure of mantle modeled from sound velocities