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English America 1500-1733. North America in 1600 largely unclaimed and unexplored Early 1600s – 3 European powers make claims in 3 different parts of North America 1607 – English at Jamestown 1608 – French at Quebec 1610 – Spanish at Santa Fe. Why did England Colonize So Late?.

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English america 1500 1733

English America 1500-1733

North America in 1600 largely unclaimed and unexplored

Early 1600s – 3 European powers make claims in 3 different parts of North America

1607 – English at Jamestown

1608 – French at Quebec

1610 – Spanish at Santa Fe

Why did england colonize so late
Why did England Colonize So Late?

  • 1) England was Spain’s ally early 1500s

  • 2) 1530s – Henry VIII broke with Catholic

  • Church

  • 3) 1558 Protestant England now in conflict with Catholic Spain

4) England had Ireland

But Catholic Ireland wants to be free!

England 1570s-80s use brutal colonial tactics on the “savage” Irish

Brought this attitude to the New World?

Queen elizabeth ruled 1533 1603
Queen Elizabeth ruled 1533-1603

  • Powerful and popular queen; encouraged English expansion.

  • Sir Francis Drake one of England’s best “Sea Dogs” – pirates who went after Spanish ships

Queen elizabeth continued
Queen Elizabeth continued



Back in england with elizabeth
Back in England with Elizabeth

  • Spanish Armada

    Catholic Spanish King Phillip II assembles Armada for England

    1588 – Spanish enter English Waters!

    -English sea dogs and huge storm!

    “The Protestant Wind”

Importance of spanish armada
Importance of Spanish Armada

  • 1) England’s navy dominates- strengthens reputation for strongest ocean power.

  • 2) Weakened Spain’s fighting capabilities

  • 3) England: now strong, unified country under popular monarch; religious unity,.

  • 4) 1604- Peace treaty with Spain

Defeat of the spanish armada
Defeat of the Spanish Armada






What s going on in england
What’s Going on in England

  • On the eve of North American colonization England finds itself:

  • 1) Large increase in pop

  • 2) English landowners oppressive; remove people from land and took away sheep grazing areas

  • 3) Late 1500s- wool industry suffers depression; many out of work

  • 4) Who is the eldest in their family? Laws of primogeniture- only eldest inherits estates

If at first you don t succeed
If at First You Don’t Succeed…

  • Early adventurers (on their own) unsuccessful

  • Joint-stock company

  • Forerunner of modern corporation

  • Investors (“adventurers”) pooled capital to finance trips to New World

Stage set for english colonization
Stage Set for English Colonization

  • Peace with Spain

  • Population growth

  • Unemployment

  • Thirst for adventure, markets, religious

  • Freedom

  • Joint-stock companies

Virginia company of london
Virginia Company of London

  • Virginia was vaguely defined area in New World named for “virgin” Queen Elizabeth

  • Virginia Company of London

  • Joint stock company chartered by King James I

  • Purpose was gold and desire; find passage to Indies

  • Few investors thought of long-term colonization

  • Only intended to exist for a few years; investors would then liquidate it for profit

  • Enormous pressure put on colonists to quickly find richesor risk being abandoned

Virginia company of london1
Virginia Company of London

  • Virginia Company promoted their investment as… "advanced the glorie of God, and inlarged the glorie and wealth of their countrey.”

  • Virginia Company published promotions to encourage investment and emigration

  • Even sermons!!

En dat virginia quintam meaning behold virginia gives the fifth dominion
"En dat Virginia quintam" meaning "Behold Virginia gives the fifth [dominion].“

Virginia Company of London

Guaranteed the Virginia Charter the same rights (to colonists) as if in England

  • Late 1606 – Virginia Company sends out 3 ships

  • Spring 1607 – land at mouth of

  • Chesapeake Bay -Attacked by Indians and move on

  • May 24, 1607 – about 100 colonists (all men) land at Jamestown, along banks of James River (both named for king)

  • easily defended, but mosquitoes

Nightmare of jamestown begins
Nightmare of Jamestown Begins

  • 1607-1609 Colonists die from disease, malnutrition, starvation

  • “Gentlemen” colonists would not work; wasted time looking for gold.

  • Paranoia, Indian attacks, even threat of the Spanish!

  • On the way over, the colonists did not know anything! Virginia Company provided a locked box filled with directions, governmental decisions, as well as advice on how to interact with the land and natives.

Captain john smith
Captain John Smith

  • In his GenerallHistorie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles:

  • Smith writes, "We were all ignorant [of what we would find], supposing to make passage in two months, with vituals to live, and the advantage of spring to work; we were at sea five months, where we spent our victual (provisions) and lost the opportunitie of the time and season to plant, by the unskilfull presumption of our ignorant transporters, that understood not at all what they undertook."

John smith and pocahontas
John Smith and Pocahontas

  • Captain John Smith and the Indians

  • December 1607 – captured and subject to mock execution by Wahunsonacock

  • Pocahontas in ritual designed to show Smith the power of Powhatan and the offer to “adopt” the English into Powhatan Confed.

  • Pocahontas became intermediary… but let’s be realistic…

John smith martial law
John Smith, Martial Law

  • Back at James Fort…

  • 1608 – Smith took control of colony

  • “starving time”

  • Colonists still died in huge numbers

  • Ate “dogges, Catts, Ratss, and Myce”

  • Some even resorted to cannibalism

  • Dug up corpses or food

    One man killed and ate his wife (and then was executed)

  • Of the 400 colonists who had arrived by 1609, only 60 survived by 1610

John smith martial law1
John Smith, Martial Law

  • " Drunken, gluttonous loiterers ... poor gentlemen, tradesmen, serving men, libertines, and such like, ten times more fit to spoil a commonwealth than begin one."– Captain Smith

  • John Smith was pragmatic!

  • So much needed to be done! He told the Virginia Company to send workers with skills!!!

  • "He who does not work, will not eat." – Captain Smith

John smith s early exit
John Smith’s Early Exit

  • John Smith was only at Jamestown for its founding and left quite early

  • Gun sack filled with powder caught fire while he is sleeping; suffers heavy wounds.

  • Sent back to England where he is published!

Why john smith is important
Why John Smith is Important

  • Why would someone who exited the colonial scene only two years after its start be remembered as one of the main players?

  • 1) He’s a writer, explorer and recorder!

  • 2) He’s more trusted byWahunsonacock than other government officers

  • 3) He studies language; develops communications

  • 4) Meritocracy- rewards for deeds, not rank.

  • 5) Birthplace of American democratic ideals…

Enough is enough
Enough is Enough!

  • 1610 – colonists tried to sail back to England

  • Met at mouth of James River by relief party headed by Lord De La Warr

  • Ordered colonists back to Jamestown

  • Imposed harsh military discipline

  • Took aggressive action against Indians

  • Disease continued to kill many

  • 1625 – 1,200 people lived in Virginia, out of 8,000 who had come there

Powhatan confederacy
Powhatan Confederacy

  • Wahunsonacock is chief of Confederacy consisting of 36 nations.

  • Hard to say what the chief thought about these colonists.

Relations btw english indians
Relations btw English & Indians

  • General mistrust but also the English are dependent on the natives .

  • Growing hostilities

  • 1610-1614- De La Warr raids villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields.

Virginia child of tobacco
Virginia: Child of Tobacco

  • Cultivation of Tobacco

  • 1612 John Rolfe engineers tobacco strain

  • Soon Europeans want!

  • Colonists want more land and push to interior

Tobacco for virginia positives and negatives
Tobacco for Virginia: Positives and Negatives

  • Tobacco = $$$$$$ for England, the Company investors and the colonists

  • But Virginia broke the rule: Don’t depend on one crop when establishing a colonial hold!

  • Tobacco promoted use of plantation system; need for cheap, abundant labor

  • 1619 – Dutch ship sold 20 Africans to Jamestown

  • Not clear whether they were indentured servants for a fixed period of time) or lifelong slaves

  • Planted seeds of slave system

  • Whites too poor in 1600s to buy many slaves

  • 1700 – 14% of the population was black; most of these were slaves

John rolfe and pocahontas
John Rolfe and Pocahontas

  • 1614 Married

  • Powhatan and colonists issue a mutual period of peace

  • Soon after Pocahontas travels to England

Growing issues btw vc and settlers
Growing Issues btw VC and Settlers

  • Representative Self-Government

  • 1619 Settlers form the House of Burgesses

  • First of many mini-Parliaments in America

Violence and more violence
Violence and More Violence

Powhatan is getting angry!

Angry/Desperate at settlers encroaching the interior and putting pressure on the Confederacy

Opencancanough (Powhatan’s bro) has all but assumed power

1622: Good Frday Massacre of English colonists-no one spared

  • 1624 Colonial Response: Virginia Company abandons ideas of cooperation

  • Mass invitation to over 350 Indians

  • Group poisoning of Indian families

  • *** Both Indians and English settlers violate rules of engagement…

Enough is enough1
Enough is Enough!

  • James I grew hostile to Virginia

  • Hated tobacco but couldn’t ignore profit

  • Distrusted House of Burgesses (a “seminary of sedition”)

  • 1624 – King revoked the charter of bankrupt Virginia company

  • Virginia made a royal colony, under king’s direct control

The conflicts continue
The Conflicts Continue…

  • 1644 – 1646 – Second Anglo- Powhatan War

  • Last effort of natives to defeat English

  • Indians again defeated

  • Peace treaty of 1646

  • Removed Powhatans from their original land

  • Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas