FRAMING: Framing —deciding where an image begins and ends — is as vital to the meaning of an image as composition.
ECU (Extreme Close Up)The ECU gets right in and shows extreme detail.
CU (Close Up)A certain feature or part of the subject takes up the whole frame. A close up of a person usually means a close up of their face.
MCU (Medium Close Up)Half way between a MS and a CU. This shot shows the face more clearly, without getting uncomfortably close.
MS (Mid Shot)The MS shows some part of the subject in more detail, whilst still showing enough for the audience to feel as if they were looking at the whole subject. This is an approximation of how you would see a person if you were having a casual conversation. You wouldn't be paying any attention to their lower body, so that part of the picture is unnecessary.
MLS (Medium Long Shot)The subject takes up the full frame. The feet will be almost at the bottom of frame, and the head almost at the top. The small amount of room above and below the subject can be thought of as safety room - you don't want to be cutting the top of the head off.
LS (Long Shot)A human figure occupies between half and two thirds of the screen height. One of the most common shots, as it shows where the person is, what they are doing, and with whom.
XLS (extreme long shot)Normally used for recording panoramas or big buildings, where a human figure appears as a speck on the screen. Very useful for showing the surroundings, or as an establishing shot. The individual is not recognisable, though we may presume identity from previous shots.
Rule of Thirds Imaginary lines are drawn dividing the image into thirds both horizontaly and verticaly. You place important elements of your composition where these lines intersect.
Headroom X O Framing with too much headroom is one of the most common compositional mistakes.
Angle The different compositions of these two images present two very different impressions of this man.
Depth Shallow depth of field Less shallow depth of field