understanding livestock odors ron sheffield animal waste extension specialist l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Understanding Livestock Odors Ron Sheffield Animal Waste Extension Specialist PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Understanding Livestock Odors Ron Sheffield Animal Waste Extension Specialist

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

Understanding Livestock Odors Ron Sheffield Animal Waste Extension Specialist - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 412 Views
  • Uploaded on

Understanding Livestock Odors Ron Sheffield Animal Waste Extension Specialist. Odors from Livestock Facilities. Odors from Livestock Facilities. Highly emotional issue Rural development Economic importance of livestock industry

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Understanding Livestock Odors Ron Sheffield Animal Waste Extension Specialist' - flora


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
odors from livestock facilities
Odors from Livestock Facilities
  • Highly emotional issue
  • Rural development
  • Economic importance of livestock industry

Only after we understand the problem can we work towards acceptable solutions.

olfaction sense of smell
Olfaction-Sense of Smell
  • Complex
  • Evokes a reaction
  • Humans detect > 10,000 odors
  • Mixtures of gases
  • Able to detect extremely low concentrations
conception of odors and smells
Conception of Odors and Smells
  • Describe a childhood odor memory
  • What is your favorite odor? Why?
  • Describe your most unusual odor memory
normal olfactory sensitivity
Normal Olfactory Sensitivity

Ansomic Condition

Hypersensitive Condition

Population Detecting Odor (%)

Normal Sense of “Smell”

Odor Concentration

how are odors produced
How are odors produced?
  • By-products of microbial degradation of manure and organic matter
  • Uncontrolled anaerobic conditions
  • Highly dependent on the amount and type of microbial activity
manure decomposition
Manure Decomposition
  • Over 80 to 200 different gasses identified
  • Manure gasses related to anaerobic decomposition
    • Ammonia (NH3+)
    • Methane (CH4)
    • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  • Odorants
    • volatile fatty acids
  • Dust and other particulate matter
manure gasses
Manure Gasses
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Methane
    • colder climates, poor ventilation, anaerobic decomposition of stored manure
  • Ammonia (NH3)
    • dominates in warmer climates
    • anaerobic by-product
    • compounded by recycling of lagoon effluent for waste handling
slide12
Dust
  • Sources
    • Feed
    • Dried Manure
    • Dander (dead skin)
    • Hair
  • Other particulate matter
    • viral, bacterial, and fungal agents
    • endotoxin, glucans
  • Dual role as possible odorant and odor carrier
odor and gas emissions
Odor and Gas Emissions
  • Parameters that effect odor and microbe production
    • moisture content
    • temperature
    • pH
    • oxygen concentrations
    • environmental conditions (season, wind patterns)
manure gases
Manure Gases
  • Nose detection at low levels
    • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
  • Nose detection at high level
    • Methane (CH4)
  • Some gases may have a compounding odor effect
odor emission sources
Odor Emission Sources
  • Livestock buildings
  • Manure storage units
  • Land application sites
  • Method of land application
  • Feed storage
  • Mortality storage or disposal units
odor sources
Odor Sources
  • “Background” odor
    • buildings
    • lagoons or storage ponds
  • Seasonal variations in odor
  • “Short-term” odors
    • agitation
    • land application / spray irrigation
odor and gas emissions18
Odor and Gas Emissions
  • Can be controlled through design and management
    • ventilation system
    • management and “housekeeping” practices
    • waste management system
    • waste application system
odor chemistry
Odor Chemistry
  • Odorous Compounds
    • Aliphatic (fatty) Acids
    • Amines
    • Ammonia
    • Aromatics
    • Sulfur (inorganic and organic)
compounds produced through anaerobic decomposition
Compounds Produced through Anaerobic Decomposition
  • Methane
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Ammonia
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Acetic, Propionic, Butyric Acids
  • Cadaverine and Putresine - bacterial breakdown of amino acids
osmophores
Osmophores
  • Odors are caused by this group of radicals

CHO- Aldehydes

CH2OH- Carbinols

CO-2 Carbonyls

COOH- Carboxyls

OH- Hydroxyl compounds

SH- Sulphydryls

osmophores22
Osmophores
  • Odor/smell is due to the presence of different molecules

C2H5OH Ethyl Alcohol, sweet-smelling

C3H5OH Allyl Alcohol, irritating smell

C9H19OH Nonyl Alcohol, offensive smell

oxygen transfer
Oxygen Transfer
  • Replacement of oxygen by sulfur
  • Non-odorous compounds

H2O Water

H2O2Hydrogen Peroxide

CO2 Carbon Dioxide

  • Compounds become odorous

H2S Hydrogen Sulfide

H2S2Hydrogen Persulfide

CS2 Hydrogen Disulfide

biochemical oxidation
Biochemical Oxidation
  • Proteins, amino acids & carbohydrates are plentiful energy source for bacteria
  • Aerobic or anaerobic process
  • Bacteria “transfer” oxygen from compounds to a hydrogen acceptor

2NO3- + 12H+ = N2 + 6H2O

CO2 + 8H+ = CH4 + 2H2O

SO4 + 10H+ = H2S + 4H2O (odorous)

purple sulfur bacteria psb
Purple Sulfur Bacteria - PSB
  • Biochemical Oxidation in Anaerobic Lagoons in NC and southern US
  • Purple lagoon color
  • Photosynthetic bacteria
  • Use H2S as an electron acceptor instead of O2 and NO3
  • Reduces emission of sulfur compounds and sulfur based odors
photosynthesis

Sun

Light-dependent reactions (photophosphorylation)

ATP

NADPH + H+

Dark reaction (CO2 fixation)

CO2

Carbohydrates

Photosynthesis

Oxygenic: Green plants, algae, cyanobacteria

Anoxygenic: Purple, green and Heliobacteria

Sun

Light-dependent reactions (photophosphorylation)

ATP

H2S

Dark reaction (CO2 fixation)

CO2

Carbohydrates

*** H2O is electron donor

*** H2S is electron donor

anaerobic lagoons
Anaerobic Lagoons
  • Studies have been inconclusive relating environmental conditions to the presence of PSB in lagoons
    • loading rate (TS, VS, NH3, SO4)
    • class of animals
    • Temperature
    • Lagoon start-up procedures
odors and gases
Odors and Gases
  • Odor Intensity
    • measure of detection sensed by the nose
  • Gas Concentration
    • actual concentration of gas in the air
  • The relationship between odor intensity and gas concentration is different for each gas
gas vs odor measurement
Gas vs Odor Measurement
  • Gas
    • Identify individual gases
    • Measure concentrations
  • Odor - Olfactometry
    • Analyze mixture
    • Correlates with odor
    • Uses human sense of smell
gas measurement
Gas Measurement
  • Instantaneous
  • Integrated average
  • Precision & detection limit
gas measurement33
Gas Measurement
  • Patches
  • Tubes - Indicator & Diffusion
  • Jerome® meter - H2S
  • Electronic Sensors
  • GC / Mass Spectrometer
odor intensity vs gas concentration
Odor Intensity vs. Gas Concentration
  • Weak positive correlation's for some gases
    • Ammonia (NH3)
    • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

Example:

    • High odor intensities indicate high gas concentrations of NH3 and H2S
    • However, high gas concentrations do not necessarily indicate a high odor intensity
odor transport
Odor Transport
  • Difficult to document the impact area of gases
  • Transmitted via air currents
    • wind direction
    • wind speed
    • weight of gas
    • adsorption to dust particles
limits to measuring odors
Limits to Measuring Odors
  • Changes in weather or micrometeorological conditions
    • temperature, humidity, inversions
  • Odor emissions change with time
  • Wind speed and direction
  • A snap-shot in time may not reflect the conditions an hour/day before or after a measurement
technologies to control odor
Technologies to Control Odor
  • Prevent odor generation
  • Capture or destroy odors before any release to the atmosphere
  • Dispersion or disguise of odors
odor prevention technologies
Odor Prevention Technologies
  • Anaerobic treatment
  • Aeration or Oxidation
  • Feed additives
  • Manure pit or lagoon additives
  • pH control
technologies to capture odors
Technologies to Capture Odors
  • Manure storage covers
    • synthetic
    • organic mats
  • Biofilters
  • Biomass filters
  • Washing walls
technologies to disperse odors
Technologies to Disperse Odors
  • Site Selection
  • Ventilation Design
  • Vegetated Wind Breaks
  • Windbreak Walls
  • Stacks or Chimneys
  • Perfumes
  • Masking Agents