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Cancer. Who gets cancer? . One million each year ____ men 1/3 women Any age However, 77% dx ages 55 + Incidence rate varies. What Causes Cancer?. Primary Contributors: Behavior & Lifestyle Smoking Diet ____________ Exposure to ultraviolet light Sexual Behavior

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who gets cancer
Who gets cancer?
  • One million each year
  • ____ men
  • 1/3 women
  • Any age
    • However, 77% dx ages 55 +
  • Incidence rate varies
what causes cancer
What Causes Cancer?
  • Primary Contributors:
    • Behavior & Lifestyle
      • Smoking
      • Diet
      • ____________
      • Exposure to ultraviolet light
      • Sexual Behavior
  • Other Contributors:
    • Genetics
    • Environment
what is cancer
What is Cancer?
  • Out-of-control growth of abnormal cells
  • Damaged _______
    • Can be inherited
    • Can be environment
slide5
Forms as a tumor (usually)
    • Not all tumors are cancerous
    • e.g., ___________ (non-cancerous) tumors
  • 2nd leading cause of death in U.S.
common cancer types
Common Cancer Types

________________

Bladder

Breast

Colon & Rectal

Endometrial

Kidney (Renal Cell)

Leukemia

Lung

Melanoma

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Pancreatic

Prostate

Thyroid

what can you do
What can you do?
  • The risk of developing most types of cancer can be reduced by changes in a person’s ____________.
  • Today, millions are either living with or have been cured of the disease.
  • The sooner cancer is found and treatment begins, the better the chances of being cured.
melanoma
Melanoma
  • Joshua Keller
skin cancer
Skin Cancer
  • One of the more common cancers
  • Three basic types: Squamous cell, Basal cell, and Melanoma
  • Melanoma – Begins in ____________, which are cells that are responsible for our pigment which is called melanin.

(The Melanoma Research Foundation)

melanoma10
Melanoma
  • Most ____________ cancer of the skin
    • Melanocytes
    • Lower Epidermis
    • Melanin Production
5 stages
5 Stages
  • Stages 1-2 are still dealing with epidermis
  • By stage 3 the cancer has metastasized to the ________ _________
  • By stage 4 cancer has spread to multiple organs
  • By stage 5 the body is overwhelmed with the cancer
what to look for
What to Look for
  • Learn what to look for.
  • __________ (Nevi) are normal

(on average between 10 and 40)

    • Potential melanoma

( Know Your ABCD’s)

abcd s
ABCD’s

Asymmetrical

Border Irregularity

__________ varied

Diameter larger

(The Melanoma Research Foundation)

facts
Facts
  • Can occur on any skin surface
  • Also occurs in other ____________
  • More likely in __________-skinned Caucasians
  • Increased risk as you age
  • One of the most common cancers among young people

http://www.cancerventer.com

more facts
More facts
  • Epidemic growth at 3% every year
  • Melanoma 5% of all skin cancers
  • Currently more new cases each year than ____________
  • Why such an increase?
    • Sun exposure
    • More sun exposure

(The Melanoma Research Foundation)

increasing risk
Increasing Risk
  • Severe Sunburns
  • Tanning Misconceptions
  • Fair skin
  • www.cancer.gov/newscenter/individualmelanoma
important
Important!!!!!!
  • Remember ____________
  • Limit sun exposure
  • Consistently check your body
breast cancer

Breast Cancer

Jenni Sanders

risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Age: very uncommon ___________________
  • Family history: higher if her mother, sister, or daughter had it before 40
  • Obesity: higher levels of estrogen in these women

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.

slide21

Risk Factors Cont.

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.
  • Physical inactivity: ↓ activity ↑ risk
  • ________ beverages: ↑ __________ intake ↑ risk
  • Others: personal history, reproductive and menstrual history, race, radiation exposure, taking DES
diagnostics
Diagnostics
  • Mammogram, MRI, PET, Ultrasonography, Biopsy
    • MRI is the new leader in detection for women with hereditary risk (Robson and Offit, 2004)
  • Self-Exam
    • Monthly
    • Does not replace regular screening

http://www.mri.jhu.edu/~dbluemke/Breast_MRI_pic.html

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.

diagnostics cont
Diagnostics Cont.
  • Clinical Breast Exam
  • Symptoms
    • Lump or thickening in breast or underarm areas
    • _______________
    • Change in appearance
    • Fluid

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.

stages
Stage 0:

Lobular

Ductal

Stage 1:

Tumor is no more than 2cm, cells contained in breast only

Stage 2:

No more than 2cm, ___________ has occurred, or

Tumor size 2-5cm, may have spread, or

Tumor is larger than 5cm, no spreading

Stages

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.

slide25
Stage 3:

May be large but no spreading, called “____________ cancer”

IIIa: spreading to underarm lymph nodes

IIIb: tumor has grown into chest wall or skin of the breast

IIIc: more lymph node spreading other than underarm nodes

Stage 4:

____________ cancer

Other parts of body affected

Stages Cont.

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.
treatments
Treatments
  • ____________ therapy: surgery and radiation
    • Surgery is the most common
      • Includes lumpectomy or mastectomy options
    • Radiation usually after surgery

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.

treatments cont
Treatments Cont.
  • ____________ therapy: chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy
    • Chemotherapy: drugs injected or a pill
    • Hormonal therapy:
      • Use of a drug to block estradiol
      • Surgery to remove ovaries
    • Biological therapy
      • Herceptin: a monoclonal antibody

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.

statistics
Statistics
  • “A woman’s chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer is:
      • from age 30 through age 39 . . . . . . 0.44 percent (often expressed as “1 in 229”)
      • from age 40 through age 49 . . . . . . 1.46 percent (often expressed as “1 in 68”)
  • from age 50 through age 59 . . . . . . 2.73 percent (often expressed as “1 in 37”)
  • from age 60 through age 69 . . . . . . 3.82 percent (often expressed as “1 in 26”) .”

American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2005-2006. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.

statistics cont30
Statistics Cont.
  • Overall Survival Rate 
      • After 5 years- 88%
      • After 10 years- 80%
      •   After 15 years- 71%
      •   After 20 years- ____% 

American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2005-2006. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.

cancer prevention elizabeth hill
Cancer Prevention

Elizabeth Hill

general prevention
General Prevention
  • _______________________:

DFN- the use of natural or synthetic substances to reduce the risk of developing cancer or to reduce the chance that cancer will recur.

National Cancer Institute (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopicss/factsheet/Prevention/chemoprevention)

general prevention cont
General Prevention cont.
  • ____________ and Cancer Prevention:compounds slow or prevent the growth of tumor cells
  • Red Wine & Cancer Prevention:

Polyphenols

National Cancer Institue (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet

breast cancer prevention
Breast Cancer Prevention
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)

DFN- drugs that have some anti-estrogen properties and some estrogen-like properties

breast cancer prevention cont
Breast Cancer Prevention cont.
  • Tamoxifen

-Breast Cancer Prevention trial

breast cancer prevention cont36
Breast Cancer Prevention cont.
  • Preventive mastectomy

DFN- surgery to remove one or both ____________ in effort to prevent or reduce the risk of breast cancer

breast cancer prevention cont37
Breast Cancer Prevention cont.

Procedures Involved

  • Total mastectomy
  • _____________________ mastectomy

-Reduce risk by about 90%

Information on the past four slides was obtained from:

National Cancer Institute (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/breast/Patient/page2)

skin cancer prevention
Skin Cancer Prevention
  • Limit direct sun exposure between ___ am to 4pm
  • Cover up
  • Use sunscreen w/ SPF of 15 or higher
skin cancer prevention cont
Skin Cancer Prevention Cont.
  • Wear sunglasses that block UV rays
  • Avoid tanning __________________________

Information on the past two slides was retrieved from:

(http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/ped_7_1_Skin_Cancer_Detection_What _You_Can_Do.asp?sitearea=PED

tips for daily cancer prevention
Tips for Daily Cancer Prevention

1.Stop Smoking!

2. Eat a healthy diet

3. Use alcohol in moderation

tips for daily cancer prevention41
Tips for Daily Cancer Prevention

4. Avoid exposure to UV rays

5. Exercise ____________

  • Recognizing occupational & environmental hazards

Information on the past two slides was

retrieved from:

Journal of the American Medical Association

(Ovid: Torpy:JAMA, Volume291(20).May 26,

2004.2510