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CANCER. Cancer. Statistics Second leading cause of death 1 in 3 will develop cancer, 1 in 5 will die Approx. 556,500 Americans die each year from cancer Approx. 1.3 million will be diagnosed with cancer African Americans have the highest mortality rates of cancer

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CANCER


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. CANCER

    2. Cancer • Statistics • Second leading cause of death • 1 in 3 will develop cancer, 1 in 5 will die • Approx. 556,500 Americans die each year from cancer • Approx. 1.3 million will be diagnosed with cancer • African Americans have the highest mortality rates of cancer • Increased rates of cancer may be due to • Better diagnostic tools • Aging population • Exposure to carcinogens in the environment

    3. Cancer • Abnormal cell growth • Overtake healthy cells and destroy the organs involved

    4. Types of tumors • Benign • Grows slowly • Still can kill ie. Brain tumors • Tumor cells are tightly bound • Malignant • Cells are loosely bound • May spread easily to other organs

    5. How Cancer Spreads • Metastasis – cancerous cells break away from the primary tumor and spread to other organs • Lymphatic system • Blood stream

    6. Types of Cancer • Carcinoma – 85% of cancers • Organs, skin, nerves, membranes • Sarcomas – 2% of cancers • Bone, blood, connective tissue • Lymphomas – lymphatic cells • Hodgkins disease • Leukemia – blood and blood forming tissue • Melanomas – skin cancer

    7. Survival Rates • Cured means no sign of cancer 5 years after treatment • Early detection is the key to survival • Lung cancer – lowest survival rate • 15% live five years after diagnosis • Colon and rectal cancer • 93% for colon cancer and 77% survive rectal cancer • Breast cancer • 98% survival rate with early detection, otherwise may drop to 25% • Ovarian cancer • 85% survival with early detection versus 30%

    8. General Treatment • Surgery • Removal of cancerous tissue • Radiation therapy • High energy doses to kill cancer cells • Chemotherapy • Medicine that kills the cancer cells • May block blood supply to tumor and prevent development of new blood vessels • Unpleasant side effects • Immunotherapy • Bolster immune system to destroy the cancer cells

    9. Lung Cancer • Lowest survival rate • Early detection is difficult • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women • Female lung cancer rates have decreased 2% year since 1998 • Death rates for women unchanged since 1995 • Smoking causes over 85% of lung cancer in men • Alters the genetic material of the pulmonary cells • Smoking paralyzes the cilia in the lungs • The earlier you start smoking, the greater damage to the genetic material • Treatment is surgery, radiation and chemotherapy

    10. CILIA

    11. Lungs

    12. Breast Cancer • High survival rate if it is detected early • Approx 215,000 women/yr in USA diagnosed with breast cancer • 40,000 die each yr • One in 8 women develop breast cancer, 1 in 25 will die from it

    13. Breast Cancer • Women at risk: • History of breast cancer • Genetic mutation BRCA1 or BRCA2 • Family history • Benign breast disease • Dense breast tissue • First child at 30 or older or no children • Early menarche before the age of 12

    14. Breast Cancer • Women at risk • Alcohol consumption – more then 2-5 drinks per day • Diet high in saturated fats • Weight gain of 30-50 lbs during pregnancy • HRT • Obesity • 2/3 of women over 50 are overweight • Estimate that weight contributes to 1/3 to1/2 of all breast cancer deaths • Smokers • One pack per day increases your risk 4-5 times • Breast cancer in men

    15. Breast Cancer • Prevention • Monthly breast self exam • Preformed one week after the end of the menstrual cycle

    16. Breast Cancer • Monthly breast self exam

    17. Breast Cancer • Prevention • Mammography • Yearly mammogram starting at age 40

    18. Breast Cancer

    19. Breast Cancer • Treatment • Needle biopsy • Surgery • Chemotherapy • Radiation

    20. Breast Cancer Surgery

    21. Cervical Cancer • Cancer in the cervical area of the uterus • 13,000 yr diagnosed • 4000 deaths per year

    22. Cervical Cancer • Risk factors • Lower socioeconomic status • Sexually active before 18 • Multiple partners • Women with herpes virus • Women with human papilloma virus

    23. Cervical Cancer • Prevention • PAP smear • Minimum requirement is once every three years after you have had two normal pap smears one year apart • Cervical cancer vaccine

    24. Ovarian Cancer • Cancer of the ovaries • 85% survival if detected early • 30% survival if it has spread

    25. Ovarian Cancer • Prevention • Women need to have regular medical exams to pick up early symptoms • Early detection difficult because of vague symptoms • HRT for menopausal symptoms may increase ovarian cancer rates by 30% • Treatment • Surgery, chemotherapy

    26. Men’s Health • In general men fail to get routine check-ups and delay care • 1 in 3 men have no regular MD • 50% of men did not have a physical or cholesterol checked in the previous yr. • Men over 50 • 6 in 10 have not been screened for colon cancer • 4 in 10 have not been screened for prostate cancer

    27. Prostate Cancer • Approx. 232,000 new cases each year, 30,000 die each year • Risk factors • Age over 50 • Family history • Afro-Americans • High fat diet • BRCA 1 and 2 mutations • Obesity

    28. Prostate Cancer

    29. Prostate Cancer • Prevention • PSA – prostate specific antigen, blood test • Men over 50 should have it done yearly • African Americans should have it done yearly over the age of 40 • Routine PSA would reduce deaths by 69% • Digital rectal exam • Should be done yearly • Treatment • Surgery • Radiation • chemotherapy

    30. Testicular Cancer • Occurs in men between 15-34 yrs • Kills 42,000/yr • Greater risk if there is a family history • Treatment includes surgery, chemo, radiation

    31. Testicular Self ExamEvery 6-8 Weeks

    32. Colon Cancer • Five year survival rate • Early detection 93% • 150,000 diagnosed every year in California

    33. Colon Cancer • Risk factors • Genetic predisposition • Diet • High in red meat • Low in veggies and fruit • Smoking • Prevention • Sigmoidoscopy • Over 50 years, one every 3-5 yrs • Digital rectal exam • Looking for blood in the stool • Low dose ASA • Decreases rates of polyps

    34. Colon Cancer

    35. Colon Cancer

    36. Colon Cancer

    37. Skin Cancer • 96% cure rate with early detection versus • 16 % with late detection • Most common type of cancer • One million cases diagnosed per year in the US • 10,590 deaths per year in US

    38. Skin Cancer • Basal cell carcinoma • Most common type, one million new cases/yr • 80% of new cases of skin cancer • Found in areas exposed to the sun, face, neck, arms, ears, hands • Small bump on skin that may bleed or crust over

    39. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    40. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    41. Skin Cancer • Squamous cell carcinoma • Second most common • 16% of new cases • On ears, face, lips, mouth • Red, scaly patches

    42. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    43. Skin Cancer • Melanoma • 4% of cases • 50,000 per year diagnosed in US • 5000 cases/yr in California • 7700 die each year • Most common cancer in women between 25-29 • Most dangerous and spreads rapidly • Found mainly on back, chest, abdomen, legs • Brown or black spot or bump • Irregular color or shape • Bleeds easily

    44. Skin Cancer • Risk factors for melanoma • Blistering sunburn before the age of 20 • U/V radiation through sun exposure or tanning beds • Family or personal history of melanoma • Fair complexion • Blue or green eyes • Blond or red hair • People with numerous moles

    45. Melanoma