Cancer
Download
1 / 60

CANCER - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 232 Views
  • Updated On :

CANCER. Cancer. Statistics Second leading cause of death 1 in 3 will develop cancer, 1 in 5 will die Approx. 556,500 Americans die each year from cancer Approx. 1.3 million will be diagnosed with cancer African Americans have the highest mortality rates of cancer

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CANCER' - Gideon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Cancer2 l.jpg
Cancer

  • Statistics

    • Second leading cause of death

    • 1 in 3 will develop cancer, 1 in 5 will die

    • Approx. 556,500 Americans die each year from cancer

    • Approx. 1.3 million will be diagnosed with cancer

    • African Americans have the highest mortality rates of cancer

    • Increased rates of cancer may be due to

      • Better diagnostic tools

      • Aging population

      • Exposure to carcinogens in the environment


Cancer4 l.jpg
Cancer

  • Abnormal cell growth

  • Overtake healthy cells and destroy the organs involved


Types of tumors l.jpg
Types of tumors

  • Benign

    • Grows slowly

      • Still can kill ie. Brain tumors

    • Tumor cells are tightly bound

  • Malignant

    • Cells are loosely bound

    • May spread easily to other organs


How cancer spreads l.jpg
How Cancer Spreads

  • Metastasis – cancerous cells break away from the primary tumor and spread to other organs

    • Lymphatic system

    • Blood stream


Types of cancer l.jpg
Types of Cancer

  • Carcinoma – 85% of cancers

    • Organs, skin, nerves, membranes

  • Sarcomas – 2% of cancers

    • Bone, blood, connective tissue

  • Lymphomas – lymphatic cells

    • Hodgkins disease

  • Leukemia – blood and blood forming tissue

  • Melanomas – skin cancer


Survival rates l.jpg
Survival Rates

  • Cured means no sign of cancer 5 years after treatment

  • Early detection is the key to survival

  • Lung cancer – lowest survival rate

    • 15% live five years after diagnosis

  • Colon and rectal cancer

    • 93% for colon cancer and 77% survive rectal cancer

  • Breast cancer

    • 98% survival rate with early detection, otherwise may drop to 25%

  • Ovarian cancer

    • 85% survival with early detection versus 30%


General treatment l.jpg
General Treatment

  • Surgery

    • Removal of cancerous tissue

  • Radiation therapy

    • High energy doses to kill cancer cells

  • Chemotherapy

    • Medicine that kills the cancer cells

      • May block blood supply to tumor and prevent development of new blood vessels

    • Unpleasant side effects

  • Immunotherapy

    • Bolster immune system to destroy the cancer cells


Lung cancer l.jpg
Lung Cancer

  • Lowest survival rate

  • Early detection is difficult

  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women

    • Female lung cancer rates have decreased 2% year since 1998

    • Death rates for women unchanged since 1995

  • Smoking causes over 85% of lung cancer in men

  • Alters the genetic material of the pulmonary cells

  • Smoking paralyzes the cilia in the lungs

  • The earlier you start smoking, the greater damage to the genetic material

  • Treatment is surgery, radiation and chemotherapy




Breast cancer l.jpg
Breast Cancer

  • High survival rate if it is detected early

  • Approx 215,000 women/yr in USA diagnosed with breast cancer

  • 40,000 die each yr

  • One in 8 women develop breast cancer, 1 in 25 will die from it


Breast cancer14 l.jpg
Breast Cancer

  • Women at risk:

    • History of breast cancer

    • Genetic mutation BRCA1 or BRCA2

    • Family history

    • Benign breast disease

    • Dense breast tissue

    • First child at 30 or older or no children

    • Early menarche before the age of 12


Breast cancer15 l.jpg
Breast Cancer

  • Women at risk

    • Alcohol consumption – more then 2-5 drinks per day

    • Diet high in saturated fats

    • Weight gain of 30-50 lbs during pregnancy

    • HRT

    • Obesity

      • 2/3 of women over 50 are overweight

      • Estimate that weight contributes to 1/3 to1/2 of all breast cancer deaths

  • Smokers

    • One pack per day increases your risk 4-5 times

  • Breast cancer in men


Breast cancer16 l.jpg
Breast Cancer

  • Prevention

    • Monthly breast self exam

    • Preformed one week after the end of the menstrual cycle


Breast cancer17 l.jpg
Breast Cancer

  • Monthly breast self exam


Breast cancer18 l.jpg
Breast Cancer

  • Prevention

    • Mammography

    • Yearly mammogram starting at age 40



Breast cancer20 l.jpg
Breast Cancer

  • Treatment

    • Needle biopsy

    • Surgery

    • Chemotherapy

    • Radiation



Cervical cancer l.jpg
Cervical Cancer

  • Cancer in the cervical area of the uterus

    • 13,000 yr diagnosed

    • 4000 deaths per year


Cervical cancer24 l.jpg
Cervical Cancer

  • Risk factors

    • Lower socioeconomic status

    • Sexually active before 18

    • Multiple partners

    • Women with herpes virus

    • Women with human papilloma virus


Cervical cancer25 l.jpg
Cervical Cancer

  • Prevention

    • PAP smear

      • Minimum requirement is once every three years after you have had two normal pap smears one year apart

    • Cervical cancer vaccine


Ovarian cancer l.jpg
Ovarian Cancer

  • Cancer of the ovaries

    • 85% survival if detected early

    • 30% survival if it has spread


Ovarian cancer27 l.jpg
Ovarian Cancer

  • Prevention

    • Women need to have regular medical exams to pick up early symptoms

    • Early detection difficult because of vague symptoms

    • HRT for menopausal symptoms may increase ovarian cancer rates by 30%

  • Treatment

    • Surgery, chemotherapy


Men s health l.jpg
Men’s Health

  • In general men fail to get routine check-ups and delay care

  • 1 in 3 men have no regular MD

  • 50% of men did not have a physical or cholesterol checked in the previous yr.

  • Men over 50

    • 6 in 10 have not been screened for colon cancer

    • 4 in 10 have not been screened for prostate cancer


Prostate cancer l.jpg
Prostate Cancer

  • Approx. 232,000 new cases each year, 30,000 die each year

  • Risk factors

    • Age over 50

    • Family history

    • Afro-Americans

    • High fat diet

    • BRCA 1 and 2 mutations

    • Obesity



Prostate cancer32 l.jpg
Prostate Cancer

  • Prevention

    • PSA – prostate specific antigen, blood test

      • Men over 50 should have it done yearly

      • African Americans should have it done yearly over the age of 40

      • Routine PSA would reduce deaths by 69%

    • Digital rectal exam

      • Should be done yearly

  • Treatment

    • Surgery

    • Radiation

    • chemotherapy


Testicular cancer l.jpg
Testicular Cancer

  • Occurs in men between 15-34 yrs

  • Kills 42,000/yr

  • Greater risk if there is a family history

  • Treatment includes surgery, chemo, radiation


Testicular self exam every 6 8 weeks l.jpg
Testicular Self ExamEvery 6-8 Weeks


Colon cancer l.jpg
Colon Cancer

  • Five year survival rate

    • Early detection 93%

    • 150,000 diagnosed every year in California


Colon cancer36 l.jpg
Colon Cancer

  • Risk factors

    • Genetic predisposition

    • Diet

      • High in red meat

      • Low in veggies and fruit

    • Smoking

  • Prevention

    • Sigmoidoscopy

      • Over 50 years, one every 3-5 yrs

    • Digital rectal exam

      • Looking for blood in the stool

    • Low dose ASA

      • Decreases rates of polyps





Skin cancer l.jpg
Skin Cancer

  • 96% cure rate with early detection versus

  • 16 % with late detection

  • Most common type of cancer

  • One million cases diagnosed per year in the US

  • 10,590 deaths per year in US


Skin cancer41 l.jpg
Skin Cancer

  • Basal cell carcinoma

    • Most common type, one million new cases/yr

    • 80% of new cases of skin cancer

    • Found in areas exposed to the sun, face, neck, arms, ears, hands

    • Small bump on skin that may bleed or crust over




Skin cancer44 l.jpg
Skin Cancer

  • Squamous cell carcinoma

    • Second most common

    • 16% of new cases

    • On ears, face, lips, mouth

    • Red, scaly patches



Skin cancer46 l.jpg
Skin Cancer

  • Melanoma

    • 4% of cases

    • 50,000 per year diagnosed in US

      • 5000 cases/yr in California

    • 7700 die each year

      • Most common cancer in women between 25-29

    • Most dangerous and spreads rapidly

    • Found mainly on back, chest, abdomen, legs

    • Brown or black spot or bump

    • Irregular color or shape

    • Bleeds easily


Skin cancer47 l.jpg
Skin Cancer

  • Risk factors for melanoma

    • Blistering sunburn before the age of 20

    • U/V radiation through sun exposure or tanning beds

    • Family or personal history of melanoma

    • Fair complexion

    • Blue or green eyes

    • Blond or red hair

    • People with numerous moles



Sun protection l.jpg
Sun Protection

  • SPF 15 for face and lips

  • 90% of visible aging due to the sun

  • Avoid sun between 10-3

  • Apply sunscreen 30 min. before exposure

    • Reapply every 2 hours

    • Use sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection

  • Wear protective clothing

  • Avoid tanning salons

    • Visiting tanning salon once or more a month increases the rate of melanoma by 55%



Skin cancer53 l.jpg
Skin Cancer

  • Early detection

    • A – asymmetry

    • B – border

      • Irregular, notched, scallop, jagged

    • C – color

      • More then one color, brown and black

    • D – diameter

      • Larger then 6 mm, size of the tip of a pencil eraser

  • Treatment

    • Surgery

    • Chemotherapy


General prevention l.jpg
General Prevention

  • Diet

    • 5-6 servings per day of fruit and veggies

    • Low fat

    • Reduce amount of high fat red meat

    • Increase fiber

      • Provides bulk to quickly move food through colon

        • Decreases rate of colon cancer

    • Eliminate salt cured foods

      • Bacon, ham, sausage, lunch meats, hot dogs

      • Use nitrates to preserve pink color, but linked to cancer

    • Increase fish


General prevention56 l.jpg
General Prevention

  • Obesity

    • Accounts for 14% of cancer in men and 20% cancer in women

    • Fat leads to overproduction of estrogen and steroid hormones linked to breast, endocrine cancer

    • Leads to increase insulin production associated with cancer

    • Linked to colon, rectal, prostate, endometrial, kidney and breast cancer


General prevention57 l.jpg
General Prevention

  • Alcohol

    • Related tocancer of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, liver

    • Heavy drinkers who smoke have a 15 times increase risk of developing cancer then non-smokers and non-drinkers


General prevention58 l.jpg
General Prevention

  • Drugs

    • Estrogen linked to uterine and breast cancer

    • DES

  • Pollution

    • Contaminated water

    • Asbestos


7 warning signs l.jpg
7 Warning Signs

  • C hange in bowel or bladder habits

  • A sore that does not heal

  • U nusual bleeding or discharge

  • T hickening or lump in the breast

  • I ndigestion or difficulty swallowing

  • O bvious change or discharge in a mole

  • N agging cough or hoarseness


Steps to decrease risk of cancer l.jpg
Steps to Decrease Risk of Cancer

  • Stop smoking

  • Alcohol in moderation

  • Eat more vegetables

  • Eat high fiber foods

  • Eat more foods with vitamin A, C

  • Avoid obesity

  • Decrease fat in diet

  • Eat fewer salt cured, smoked or nitrate cured foods

  • Stay out of the sun