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Arabs. Heidi Smith & Rebecca Beals. Literature-Islam brought major changes to the culture of southwest Asia including its literature. One of the most familiar works of Middle Eastern literature is the Rubaiyat of khayyam.

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Heidi Smith


Rebecca Beals

civilization s cultural
Literature-Islam brought major changes to the culture of southwest Asia including its literature.

One of the most familiar works of Middle Eastern literature is the Rubaiyat of khayyam.

Little is known of the life or the poetry of the twelfth-century Persian poet, mathematician, and astronomer, Omar khayyam.

Art and Architecture-Islamic art is a blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian

traditions. The mosque represent the sprit of Islam.

The most famous section of the Samarra mosque is its minaret.

One of the most famous mosques is the ninth-century mosque at Cordoba in Southern Spain.

Beginning in the eight century with the spectacular castles of Syria.

Most decoration on all forms of Islamic art consisted of Arabic letters, natural plants, and abstract figures.

Civilization’s Cultural
  • Islamic art is a blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian tradition.
  • The best expression of Islamic art is found in the magnificent Muslim mosques and the mosque represents the spirit of Islam.
  • The Great Mosque of Samarra in present-day Iraq was the world’s largest mosque at the time and it covered 10 acres.
  • The most famous section of the Samarra mosque is its minaret
  • The muezzin , or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day.
  • The minaret of Samarra nearly 90 feet in height and is unusual because of its outside spiral staircase.
  • These decoration were repeated over and over in geometric patterns called arabesques that completely covered the surfaces of objects.


  • The political system of Islam is based on three principles: Tawhid (unity of Allah), Risalat (Prophethood) and Khilafat (vicegerency).
  • Tawhid means that only Allah is the Creator, Sustainer and Master of the universe and of all that exists in it ¾ organic or inorganic
  • .
  • The medium through which we receive the law of Allah is known as Risalat.
  • Now consider Khilafat. According to the Arbic lexicon, it means ‘representation’.
  • Man, according to Islam, is the representative of Allah on earth.
  • By virtue of the powers delegated to him by Allah, he is required to exercise his Allah-given authority in this world within the limits prescribed by Allah.
  • Western democracy is based on the concept of popular sovereignty, an Islamic political order rests on the principle of POPULAR KHILAFAT.
  • In western democracy the people are sovereign, but in Islam sovereignty is vested in God and the people are his caliphs or representatives.

The five pillars of Islam-

Belief-believing there is no deity but the One God, and Muhammand is his messenger

Prayer-Performing the prescribed prayers five times a day

Charity-Giving part of one’s wealth to the poor (“giving alms”)

Fasting-Refraining from food and dawn to sunset through the month of Ramadan

Pilgrimage-Making a pilgrimage to Makkah once in a lifetime

Some were Muslims and didn’t get alone with the Christians

The Islam only has one God, Allah



  • This definition of social justice does not accord with the spirit of Islam.
  • In accordance with the Divine law, the concept of social justice lays down certain conditions to treat man as an individual with liberty and equality as his birth right. 
  • This concept of social justice is achieved by giving the individual a better understanding of his duties in society and the reward thereof as provided under the Islamic dispensation.
  • The progress of society depends upon the interaction between the individual and society with the result that a balance is maintained in human affairs.
  • Man as such should always keep in mind that God created the whole universe with a particular purpose and man has been asked to strive for its fulfillment. In the words of the Holy Qur'an: Islam avoids extremes so as to maintain balance and orderliness in society. Therefore, monopoly and cut-throat competition are disapproved. Justice to all is Islam's essence and this enables man to lead a good and happy life while at the same time strengthening the bonds of human brotherhood as well as the social fabric.


  • The twentieth century has witnessed the emergence of an economic doctrine that calls itself "Islamic economics."
  • Of all economists of the Muslim faith, only a small minority, known as "Islamic economists," identify with some variant of this new doctrine.
  • The declared purpose of Islamic economics is to identify and establish an economic order that conforms to Islamic scripture and traditions.(1) Its core positions took shape in the 1940s, and three decades later efforts to implement them were under way in dozens of countries.(2) In Pakistan, Malaysia, and elsewhere, governments are now running centralized Islamic redistribution systems known as zakat.
  • More than sixty countries have Islamic banks that claim to offer an interest-free alternative to conventional banking. Invoking religious principles, several countries, among them Pakistan and Iran, have gone so far as to outlaw every form of interest; they are forcing all banks, including foreign subsidiaries, to adopt, at least formally, ostensibly Islamic methods of deposit taking and loan making. Attempts are also under way to disseminate religious norms of price setting, bargaining, and wage determination.