THE ARABS. The Arabs were a Semitic-speaking people who lived in the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Arabs were a Semitic-speaking people who lived in the Arabian Peninsula.
In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical "Shem", Hebrew: שם, translated as "name", Arabic: ساميّ) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. This family includes the ancient and modern forms of Akkadian, Amharic, Arabic, Aramaic, Ge'ez, Hebrew, Maltese, Phoenician, Tigre and Tigrinya among others.
The Arabian Peninsula (in beige) includes the nine (9) countries of Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen and Saudi Arabia.2
The Arabs were nomads because of their hostile surroundings, moved constantly to find water and food for their animals.
The Arabs recognized a supreme god named Allah (Allah is Arabic for “God”), they also believed in other tribal gods.The Arabs organized into tribes to help one another. 4
A. The domestication of the camel led to larger populations of people in the desert and expanded the caravan trade. Towns grew along the major routes.
THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD
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Prophet Moh’d had been both a religious and a political leader, but he had never named a successor. After his death, some of his closest followers chose Prophet Moh’d.’s father-in-law, Abu Bakr, as caliph, or successor to Prophet Mohammad.
Under Abu Bakr, the Arabs defeated the Byzantine army at Yarmuk in 636. By 642, Syria, Egypt, and other parts of northern Africa were added to the new Arab empire. 9
By 650, the Arabs had conquered the entire Persian Empire. The courage of the Arab soldiers who fought in these conquests was enhanced by the belief that Muslim warriors were assured a place in Paradise if they died in battle.10
Q. WHO WAS THE FIRST CALIPH, OR SUCCESSOR OF PROPHET MOH’D?ANS. ________________________Homework: Read page 92 successors of the Arab Empire. 11
717 – A muslim force attacking Constantinople was defeated by Byzantines but the Arabas had conquered the sourhern and eastern parts the old Roman Empire. Arab power extended into Mesopotamia, Persia, and central Asia.
762 – The Abbasid built a new capital city at Baghdad, the capital of the Muslim empire during the golden age.
HARUN AL-RASHID – A powerful caliph of Baghdad in 786. His rule was a time of prosperity.
The Seljuk Turks – were nomadic people who had converted to Islam and prospered soldiers for the Abbasid caliphate.
1055 –Turkish leader captured Baghdad and took command of the entire empire. His title was SULTAN, or “holder of power.”
In Islam, all people are considered equal under Allah. But there was a fairly well-defined structure for the upper class in the Arab Empire such as:
HOMEWORK: Read chapter 3 section 2 Early African
Civilizations. Pp 97-101