Transition Planning for District 214 Students January 12, 2010
What is Transition Planning? • Transition means change and develops over time. • Transition is a federal requirement and not an “add-on” to the IEP. • Transition planning reflects the diversity of students’ needs and abilities and differs with household incomes and racial/ethnic backgrounds. • Transition Planning is a dynamic process involving a a. Partnership of consumers, b. School-age services, c. Post-school services, and d. Local communities, which results in maximum levels of employment, integration, and community participation for youth with disabilities.
A New Concept? "We have done a lot for students with disabilities. In fact, we have created a compelling problem. We have assisted students with disabilities in becoming young adults who are self-sufficient, better educated and independent with higher expectations of life, but with no place to go.” National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, 2004 Madeline Will, Former Assistant Secretary, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services [OSERS], 1983, indicated the need for transition:
Shaping the Implementation of Transition • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (P.L. 105-17) • Amended in 1990, 1997, and 2004 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act). • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 • Created to encompass many of the regulations in past legislation and attempted to address many of the previous loopholes that existed. • The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, transportation, public facilities and communications, and public accommodations (P.L. 101-336). • The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act mandate that universities in the United States provide services and accommodations to individuals with disabilities unless undue cost occurs or significant operational change is needed. (Jetesen, 2001) • Disability services that elementary and secondary students receive through the public education system are guided and provided through a strict set of guidelines under IDEA) Under the ADA, the student carries two burdens: a. the student must self-identify to the university they have a disability and b. the student must prove that requested accommodations are needed to ameliorate the functional limitations caused by the disability (P.L. 101-336, 1990).
Why Are Transition Services Required? Compared to their peers without disabilities, people with disabilities experience: • Half the graduation rate • Higher dropout rates (21% v. 10%) • Lower college entrance/completion • Lower employment (35% v. 78%) • Higher dependency on public assistance • Higher poverty rate (26% v. 9%) income below $15,000 • Lower health care (18% v. 7%) • Inadequate transportation (31% v. 13%) • Lower life satisfaction rate (34% v. 61%) 2004 N.O.D./Harris Survey Documents Trends Impacting 54 Million Americans
Why Is Effective Transition Planning Important? (Hudson River Center for Program Development, Inc.; National Center for Education Statistics, (1997); Social Security Administration, (2000); SRI International.)
Transition Planning is a Team Effort • The completion of high school is the beginning of adult life. • Entitlement to public education ends and young adults and families are faced with many options and decisions about the future. • Core Members of the team: • Student • Parents/Guardians • Teacher (general and special education) • Case Manager • Related Service providers • Administrator What’s the goal: independent living, employment, training, college, apprenticeship,……
In Addition to the Team… Outside agency representatives who could be invited to the IEP meeting may include: • Rehabilitation counselor • County social worker • Employment agency staff (day training and habilitation DTH) • Independent living center staff • Disability support staff from a post-secondary educational or technical school • Person knowledgeable about assistive technology • Person knowledgeable about financial benefits such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid or Medical Assistance (MA) • Personal care or health care providers, including mental health care providers • Probation officer or teacher from a juvenile justice center • Community park and recreation staff, and • Transportation agency staff
How to Plan • Transition planning involves a team of people drawn from different parts of the student’s school and community life. • Transition goals cannot be achieved in one year. • Transition planning, services, and activities should be approached as a multi-year process. • Young adults themselves, along with their parents, play an important role in the transition process. • Required by law • Build the individual’s self determination skills
Parent’s Roles in Transition 1. Providers of Unique Information • Highlight their children's traits, interests, and abilities. • Inform members of the team as to what motivates their son/daughter, upsets them, or catches and keeps their attention. • Share the parents "dreams" of the future along with challenges that parents face. • Provide an assessment of the students skills outside of the school environment. 2. Role Models • Be a positive role model about the value of work inside and outside the home. • Assign specific duties to children around the home; emphasizing good grooming, physical fitness, and social and communication skills. 3. Case Monitors • Become familiar with agencies in the community and responsibilities of each. • Participate in the development of the transition plan that identifies employment, post-secondary education and training, independent living, social, recreational, and transportation options at least 3-5 years prior to their child's exit from the school system. • Oversee the transition of services between the school and adult agencies before the child exits the school system and ensures agreements are fully met. • Become informed about quality transition planning and relevant community services that can assist and support children in achieving success as adults. • Assist in the implementation of identified transition goals.
Parent’s Roles in Transition continued 4. Risk Takers • Letting go is necessary for children's growth and maturity. • "Letting go to where?” • "Are the proper supports in place?” • Actively support efforts to provide transition in a variety of community settings and sharing contacts to assist in securing training sites. e. Provide opportunities to explore the community. 5. Financial Planners Discover a balance between the rewards of working and the need for immediate and long term financial security. 6. Advocates for Career Education Programs • Recognize the need for a functional, community-based career education program. • Promote employment and social skills. • Advocate for the development and initiation of services that do not currently exist in the school or community.
Why Start the Process Early? • Transition from special education services and its entitlements is complicated. • To build experiences and access the support services needed for the future. • For students with severe disabilities and complex needs, it will take time to put post-school services and supports in place. • Some students will likely be using the services of several agencies, and it will take time and coordination to figure out who can do what and who will pay for what. U.S. Department of Education
IDEA’s Definition of Transition Services 300.43 Transition services: (a) Transition services is a coordinated set of activities for a child with a disability that - (1) Is designed to be within a results-oriented process, that is focused on improving the academic and functional achievement of the child with a disability to facilitate the child’s movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational education, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation;
IDEA’s Definition of Transition Services continued (2) Is based on the individual child’s needs, taking into account the child’s strengths, preferences, and interests; and includes - • Instruction; • Related services; • Community experiences; • The development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives; • If appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and provision of a functional vocational evaluation; and • Linkages to after graduation support/services.
IDEA’s Definition of Transition Services (b) Transition services for children with disabilities may be special education, if provided as specially designed instruction, or a related service, if required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education.
2004 Federal Definition of Transition Continued (3) Includes: • Instruction • Complete required courses for graduation • Succeed in general curriculum • Gain needed skills • Related Services • To benefit from special education • To enter adult world • Linkage to adult agencies or providers [34 CFR 300.43 (a)] [20 U.S.C. 1401(34)]
2004 Federal Definition of Transition Continued • Community Experiences • Outside school building – in community settings • Examples include: community-based work experiences, job site training, banking, shopping, transportation, counseling or recreation • The development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives; and • Services leading to a job or career • Services that support activities, including registering to vote, filing taxes, renting a place to live, accessing medical services and accessing adult services such as Social Security Income (SSI) [34 CFR 300.43 (a)] [20 U.S.C. 1401(34)]
2004 Federal Definition of Transition Continued e. If appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and • Activities that adults do every day, including preparing meals, budgeting, maintaining a home, paying bills, caring for clothes and grooming, taking medication, etc. f. If appropriate, functional vocational evaluation • Assessment regarding job or career interests and skills • Variety of methods, including situational assessment, observations or formal measures [34 CFR 300.43 (a)] [20 U.S.C. 1401(34)]
Secondary Transition Form - ISBE 37-44H (7/07) & Components Complete for students age 14½ and older, and when appropriate for students younger than age 14½. Post-school outcomes should guide the development of the IEP for students age 14½ and older.
When are Measurable Post-Secondary Goals Required? A measurable post-secondary goal must be developed and written for the following areas for transition-aged students: • Education and/or Training • Education Community college, university, technical/trade/vocational school • Training Vocational or career field training, independent living skill training, apprenticeship, OJT, job corp, etc. • Employment • Paid employment (competitive, supported) • Non-paid employment (volunteer, in a training capacity) • Military • Adult Living (if needed) • Independent living skills, health/safety, financial/income, transportation/mobility, social relationships, recreation/leisure, self-advocacy/future planning
Age-Appropriate Transition Assessments EMPLOYMENT • Career Interest Inventories • Aptitude • Achievement • Intelligence • Situational Assessment in Community-Based Training Site • Medical • Social • Behavioral • Learning Styles • Career Awareness/Counseling Activities
Age-Appropriate Transition Assessments Education EDUCATION All students who have been on a general education track and plan on enrolling in post-secondary education (2 or 4-year college) should have the following information in their files: 1. State mandated test scores gathered during high school. 2. Quarterly or semester grades throughout high school. 3. Current psychological assessment data indicating areas of strength and weakness, while documenting the presence of a diagnosed disability. 4. College entrance exam scores if applying to 4 year colleges. Information would include: (a) data gathered over time that can (b) be associated with current and future education or employment environments.
Additional information may include: a. Informal interviews with students b. Study skills c. Self-advocacy skills d. Problem-solving skills e. Organizational skills f. Time management skills g. Social skills h. Student completion of interest inventories or questionnaires to establish interests and preferences in transition planning to meet the basic requirements of age appropriate transition assessment. i. Mobility/Accessibility/Transportation (driver’s education, use of public transportation, specialized transportation services). j. Consumerism (shopping, dining, banking, post office).
Age-Appropriate Transition Assessments TRAINING • Applied Technology courses • Visitation to Vocational/Technical School • Transition Planning Inventories • Determine academic and functional skills • Match academic and functional skills to post-secondary goal • Determine appropriate accommodations needed in post-secondary education and employment • Match post-school goals to appropriate post-secondary setting for job training • Readiness Skills • Training Scales of Employability • Structured Assessments in the Work Environment
Age-Appropriate Transition Assessments: Independent Living Skills INDEPENDENT LIVING SKILLS All students with independent living postsecondary goal(s) on their IEPs should have the following data sources on file: 1. Legal Assistance programs and Services (Guardianship, wills) 2. Adaptive Behavior Scale 3. Financial Support (General Public Assistance, SSI, SSDI, Medicare) 4. Self-Advocacy skills 5. Household Management and Maintenance 6. Money Management and Financial Support 7. Meal Planning and Food Preparation 8. Personal Hygiene 9. Dressing and Grooming 10. Drug and Alcohol Counseling 11. Family Planning and Sex Education 12. Safety and Health 13. Personal Care Attendant Services 14. Respite Care
POST-SECONDARY OUTCOMES (ADDRESS BY AGE 14 1/2) EMPLOYMENT(e.g., competitive, supported, sheltered, non-paid employment as a volunteer or training capacity, after finishing post-secondary education, military): (ISBE - IEP Instructions page 21) Paid • Competitive Employment a. performed on a full or part-time basis in an integrated setting b. is compensated at or above the minimum wage, but not less than the customary wage and level of benefits paid by the employer for the same or similar work performed by individuals who are not disabled. • Supported Employment a. competitive work in integrated work settings, or employment in integrated work settings in which individuals are working toward competitive work, interests, and informed choice of the individuals, for individuals with the most significant disabilities for whom competitive employment has not traditionally occurred; or b. for whom competitive employment has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of a significant disability; and c. who, because of the nature and severity of their disability, need intensive supported employment services.
POST-SECONDARY OUTCOMES (ADDRESS BY AGE 14 -1/2) EMPLOYMENT- Cont. Paid • Sheltered Employment “an accredited occupationally-oriented facility, including a work activities center, operated by a private nonprofit agency, which, except for its administrative and support staff, employs disabled persons certified under special provisions of federal minimum wage laws by the Wage and Hour Division, U.S., Department of Labor” (65 Del. Laws, c. 74, § 1.). Unpaid employment • Volunteer in a training capacity • Military
Examples of Employment Services • Vocational guidance and counseling • Medical, psychological, vocational, and other types of assessments to determine vocational potential • Job development, placement and follow-up services • Rehabilitation, technological services and adaptive devices, tools, equipment and supplies • Supported and sheltered employment • Support for competitive employment for those who need minimal assistance • Cash benefits while working (student-earned income) • Medicare or Medicaid while working • Assistance to start a new line of work • Provide instruction on job-seeking skills • Work with employer to determine employee’s response to the job demands and identify strategies to capitalize on strengths and minimize limitations • Provide community-based work experiences related to career development • List the supports the student needs to be successful on the job • Provide natural supports and accommodations • Provide instruction and training (pre-employment or on-the-job)
Employment • 14.1% of disabled adults in the workforce (819,000) were unemployed in Nov 09 - Compared to 9.4% of other adults • By age 18/19, disabled young adults were nearly three times as likely to be unemployed or 'doing something else' (25% compared with 9%) • The figures aren't seasonally adjusted and don't include nearly 21 million disabled who aren't looking for work. Chicago Tribune - December 17, 2009
Employment • At age 26, disabled people were nearly four times as likely to be unemployed or involuntarily out of work than non-disabled people. • Parental background is more important than disability status in shaping young people's aspirations. The Education and Employment of Disabled Young People, Burchardt, November 2005
Employment After High School • 7 in 10 out-of-school youth with disabilities worked for pay at some time since leaving high school. (Nov 2005) • 4 in 10 were employed at the time of the study, Nov 2005. This rate is substantially below the 63% employment rate among same-age out-of-school youth in the general population. • 4% of working youth with disabilities receive accommodations for their disabilities, largely because most youth have employers who are unaware of their disabilities. • Among those whose employers are aware of their disabilities, 25% are receiving workplace accommodations for them. The Education and Employment of Disabled Young People, Burchardt, November 2005
Accommodations “Companies don’t seem willing to make accommodations for disabled workers like they were a couple of years ago, even though research indicates expenses associated with accommodations are minimal.” Jeff Klare, Chief Executive of Hire Disability Solutions, Iselin, New Jersey, December 14, 2009
POST-SECONDARY OUTCOMES (ADDRESS BY AGE 14 -1/2) POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION (e.g., community college, 4-year university, technical/vocational/trade school): • Community or Technical Colleges (two-year programs) • College/University (four -year programs) • Compensatory Education • Continuing Education • Technical Trade Schools/Programs National Post-School Outcomes Center’s Post-School Data Collection Protocol