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Welcome to PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY GEO - 102
Today’s Goals • Discuss course - syllabus • Talk about Science • Ask Questions
Dr. Eric Peterson Office: Felmley Hall Annex 435 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 438-7865 Office Hours: 9:00 – 10:00 MW or by appointment
Text • The Good Earth by McConnell, Steer, Knight, Owens, and Park • Principles of Geology: A Lab Manual by William E. Shields This manual will be made available for purchase in the laboratory. You will need to purchase a new copy.
COURSE CONTENT • Designed for science and non-science majors • Earth’s Systems • Solid Earth – geological process that create and modify the Earth’s surface • Hydrosphere and Hydrologic Cycle • The Atmosphere • The Biosphere
COURSE OBJECTIVES • Understand the role of geology in society and geologic constraints on the utilization of resources • Understand the Major Principles of Geology • Understand the interaction between the different systems on the Earth
Class Policies • Attendance – Mandatory • Academic Honesty • Text / Lab Books Required • Pre-read assigned material
How is Science conducted? • The Scientific Method– process by which scientist answer questions • Observation – Evidence/Data that can be measured or observed. • Hypothesis – Formation of an explanation of the observation. An untested idea (See Figure 1.4). • Inductive Reasoning – scientists draw general conclusions from specific observations • Deductive Reasoning – scientists draw specific conclusions from general principles or observations
How is Science conducted? • The Scientific Method– continued • Hypothesis Testing – Designing an experiment that supports your hypothesis. • Theory – • well-supported explanation withstanding tests by numerous investigators • Elevated hypothesis • Generally accepted by the scientific community • Law – • Universally accepted theory • No deviations have ever been observed. • Most certain concept in science
The Scientific Method • Scientific answers are tentative – they can change • Answers/Explanations are continually challenged, which causes ideas to be modified or discarded • Answers/Explanations should be predictable and testable • Answers/Explanations are based upon observations or experiments and can be reproduced
Earth System Science • The Earth can be divided into individual parts (systems) to be studied, but it is recognized that each part interacts with many other parts. • The boundaries of a system can be defined however you want. • Systems are defined by how energy and matter cross the boundaries.
Earth's Major Systems - the 4 spheres Biosphere • Hydrosphere • Biosphere • Lithosphere • Atmosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere
Example 2004 - Tsunami Fig. 1.4
Total Mass of Water Covers 71% of Earth’s surface 98% is in the oceans 2% is in streams, lakes, groundwater, & glaciers In constant motion – Hydrologic Cycle Needed for life to evolve and flourish Hydrosphere
The Biosphere • Includes all life • Plants • Animals • Microorganisms • Continually in flux • Temperature • Pressure • Chemistry
Envelope of gas around Earth Essential for life Influences weather and climate patterns Composition Unique 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen trace amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases 1st atmosphere was carbon dioxide and water vapor Oxygen added as a by-product photosynthesis once plants evolved Atmosphere
The Solid Earth Minerals and rocks The stresses acting on the materials Plate Tectonics Lithosphere