B.F. Skinner, Excerpt from “Beyond Freedom and dignity” • Freedom- consequence of harmful stimulus. Organisms seek to free themselves from harmful stimulus. • Evolved from survival • Freedom is not “loved,” but biologically beneficial. • Operant conditioning explains our ideas of freedom. • Product of biological “endowment” • “Literature of Freedom”- observable body of work that encourages people to free themselves from aversion. • Must account behavior to what is observable; can not measure a philosophy as an influence of behavior. • This “Literature” discusses a “freer” experience that can be related to operant conditioning. • Once being free, no more action is required.
Sigmund Freud, “The Structure of the Unconscious” • Freedom must be inserted into Freud’s theory of personality. • Consciousness is a product of inherent personality qualities- Id, Ego, Super-Ego, outside world. • Unconscious- influences our behavior in ways we can not full understand. • Preconscious- mental thing have the ability to recall information. • Ego- regulates impulses of id and pressures of the Super-Ego. Servant of the Id and Super-Ego • Super-Ego- internalized values from society and external systems of thought. • Id- “laws of logic” do not apply, “chaos,” energized, “no organisation.” • Pleasure-principle- inherent motivation to seek pleasure & avoid displeasure. • All these personality characteristics blend together