"There are decades where nothing happens; and there are weeks where decades happen." -Vladimir Lenin
QUIZ pp. 726-732 • What were some of the problems Russia had in going to war in 1914? • Who was RASPUTIN? • What happened as a result of the MARCH REVOLUTION (February) 1917? • Who were the BOLSHEVIKS? • Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks? • Who took power in the NOVEMBER REVOLUTION 1917 (Red October) • Who were THE WHITES?
QUIZ ANSWERS • UNPREPARED MILITARY/LACK OF INDUSTRIALIZATION/LACK OF TECHNOLOGY/WEAK MILITARY AND POLITICAL LEADERS • CRAZY MONK WHO CONTROLS AND INFLUENCES THE TSARINA • OVERTHROW OF THE IMPERIAL ROMANOV DYNASTY • COMMUNISTS • VLADIMIR LENIN • THE BOLSHEVIKS • THE ANTI-BOLSHEVIKS
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION • THE WEAKNESS AND FAILURE OF RUSSIA IN WW I LEADS DIRECTLY TO THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE COLLAPSE OF IMPERIAL RUSSIA AND THE ROMANOV DYNASTY • Revolution of 1905 had failed to produce a liberal constitutional monarchy • Tsar had all the power relied on the army and the bureaucracy
PROBLEMS FOR RUSSIA IN WW I • Unprepared militarily • Unprepared industrially and technologically • Lacked good military leadership • Massive military defeats
NICHOLAS AND ALEXANDRA • The last Romanovs • Tsar was not up to the challenges • Tried to take personal command of the army • Family problems
The Murder of Rasputin The murder of Rasputin has become a legend, some of it invented by the very men who killed him, which is why it has become difficult to discern the actual course of events. On December 16, 1916, having decided that Rasputin's influence over the Tsaritsa had made him a threat to the empire, a group of nobles led by Prince Felix Yusupov and the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich and the right-wing politician Vladimir Purishkevich apparently lured Rasputin to the Yusupovs' Moika Palace]…led him down to the cellar, where they served him cakes and red wine laced with a massive amount of cyanide. According to legend, Rasputin was unaffected, although VasilyMaklakov had supplied enough poison to kill five men. Conversely, Maria's account asserts that, if her father did eat or drink poison, it was not in the cakes or wine, because after the attack by Guseva he suffered from hyperacidity and avoided anything with sugar. In fact, she expresses doubt that he was poisoned at all. It has been suggested, on the other hand, that Rasputin had developed an immunity to poison due to mithridatism. Determined to finish the job, Prince Yusupov became anxious about the possibility that Rasputin might live until the morning, leaving the conspirators no time to conceal his body. Yusupov ran upstairs to consult the others and then came back down to shoot Rasputin through the back with a revolver. Rasputin fell, and the company left the palace for a while. Yusupov, who had left without a coat, decided to return to get one, and while at the palace, he went to check on the body. Suddenly, Rasputin opened his eyes and lunged at Yusupov. He grabbed Yusupov, ominously whispered in his ear, "you bad boy," and attempted to strangle him. At that moment, however, the other conspirators arrived and fired at Rasputin. After being hit three times in the back, he fell once more. As they neared his body, the party found that, remarkably, he was still alive, struggling to get up. They clubbed him into submission. Some accounts say that his killers also sexually mutilated him, severing his penis (subsequently resulting in urban legends and claims that certain third parties were in possession of the organ) After binding his body and wrapping him in a carpet, they threw him into the icy Neva River. He broke out of his bonds and the carpet wrapping him, but drowned in the river. Three days later, Rasputin's body, poisoned, shot four times, badly beaten, and drowned, was recovered from the river. An autopsy established that the cause of death was drowning. His arms were found in an upright position, as if he had tried to claw his way out from under the ice. It was found that he had indeed been poisoned, and that the poison alone should have been enough to kill him. There is a report that after his body was recovered, water was found in the lungs, supporting the idea that he was still alive before submersion into the partially frozen river.
World War I placed a considerable strain on Russia's government and economy, which resulted in mass shortages and starvation. The mismanagement and failures of the war was blamed on the Czar, due to the fact that he had positioned the army under his personal command. Eventually the people and more importantly the soldiers turned against the Czar. Finally in March of 1917 the Duma forced the Czar to abdicate his throne.
THE MARCH REVOLUTION • PETROGRAD = the new name for St. Petersburg • Strikes break out in Petrograd in 1917 • Skyrocketing bread prices, rationing, shortages • WOMEN’S MARCH IN PETROGRAD = mass demonstrations demand “Peace and Bread” • Workers join the women in protest – general strikes shut down all factories • Tsar orders troops to break up the strikes and demonstrations shoot if necessary
THE MARCH REVOLUTION 1917 • The soldiers refuse to fire on protestors and end up joining them • Tsar loses control of Petrograd • Duma declares that it is taking power on March 12th • New government is created = the PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT • The Tsar abdicates on March 15th
AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF THE TSARIST GOVERNMENT • surprise/unexpected how quickly it fell apart • No real plan for what to do next • Middle class and liberal aristocrats supported the provisional govt • Provisional govt wanted to create a liberal republic and stay in the war • Peasants and workers want an end to the war
THE SOVIETS Councils of workers and soldiers • represented the interests of the lower classes • made up of different socialist groups
RUSSIAN MARXISM • THE MENSHEVIKS – moderates • THE BOLSHEVIKS - radicals
THE BOLSHEVIKS • Led by VLADIMIR LENIN • Violent revolution destroy capitalism • “the vanguard of the revolution” = the party of well disciplined professional revolutionaries • Lenin was in exile in Switzerland in 1917 • THE SEALED TRAIN = Germans ship Lenin back to Russia • Lenin arrives back in Russia in April 1917 – issues the APRIL THESES a. gain control of the Soviets b. overthrow the Provisional Govt c. “ PEACE, LAND, BREAD”
THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT • Plans a constitutional convention in fall of 1917 • Continue the war effort • Peasants begin to seize land • Army falls apart formation of Soviets in the army • Peasant soldiers begin mass desertions drop weapons and go home • No one really supports the Prov. Govt. • In July ALEXANDER KERENSKY becomes leader of the govt
RED OCTOBER = THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION • In October 1917 Lenin and the Bolsheviks seize power in Petrograd • The Provisional Government collapses • Constituent Assembly(Constitutional Convention) is broken up by force by Lenin • Bolsheviks rename themselves – the Communist Party • Land is nationalized and turned over the to the rural soviets • Get Russia out of the war March 1918
THE TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK • Russia signs treaty with Germany • Russia gives up a large amount of territory to Germany – Eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Baltic states • Russia is out of the war
Black line represents the territory given up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
THE RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR 1918-1921 • Reds v. Whites = Bolsheviks v. anti-Bolsheviks • The Red Army – created and headed by LEON TROTSKY • White forces led by Admiral Kolchak in the East • General Denikin in the South • Other groups also attack/threaten the Reds • Various White forces never unite and are defeated one by one • Bolsheviks are more ruthless and brutal • Tsar, his wife, and five children are murdered by the Reds in July 1918 at Ekaterinburg
White propaganda • The white knight represents the anti-bolsheviks forces • The red dragon represents the bolsheviks/communists
WAR COMMUNISM • Reds take total control of the economy all resources are used to win the civil war • Nationalization of banks and industry • Forced seizure of grain from peasants • Centralization of Bolshevik administration
THE RED TERROR • The Bolshevik use of terror, murder, and intimidation to destroy any and all opposition • Creation of a new Red secret police = THE CHEKA • All classes were targeted • “Do not look in the file of incriminating evidence to see whether or not the accused rose up against the Soviets with arms or words. Ask him instead to which class he belongs, what is his background, his education, his profession. These are the questions that will determine the fate of the accused. That is the meaning and essence of the Red Terror.“
REVIEW Q’s 25 • Who were the Nationalists and Unionists in Ireland? • What was Capt. Alfred Dreyfus accused of? And why? • Who were the members of the Triple Entente? • What were the Germans attempting to challenge the British over? • Who was Franz Ferdinand? • What was dispute between Austria and Serbia over? • Who were the Black Hand? • Who gave the blank check to who? • What was the Schlieffen Plan? • What were four elements of trench warfare? • Who attacked who in the Gallipoli campaign • How many were killed at the Battle of Verdun? • What was the significance of German unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmermann Telegram? • What was the Lusitania and what happened to it? • What was the Fourteen Points? • Define Total War • Name two ways governments tried to control public opinion. • What did the Suffragettes want? • How many were killed in WW I? • What killed 30 million people after WW I? • What was the name of the Treaty ending WW I? • What was the League of Nations? • Who were the Big 3? • What was Article 231? • What were 9 newly created countries in Europe after WW I?
PRQ’s II • Who was the last Tsar of Russia? • Who was the Tsar’s wife? • Who was Rasputin? • What did the Empress think Rasputin could do? • What was Petrograd? • How did the soldiers respond to the Tsar’s orders to break strikes and protests in March 1917? • What replaced the Tsar’s government? • Define Duma • Who were the Bolsheviks? • Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks? • What was the Provisional Government’s war policy? • What was the Provisional Government’s policy on land redistribution? • What did the peasants begin to do? • Where was Lenin when the March revolution broke out? • How did he get back to Russia? • Why did the Germans help Lenin return to Russia? • What did Lenin and the Bolsheviks do in November 1917? • What happened to the Provisional Government? • What broke out after the November Revolution? • What was the Bolshevik policy towards the war? • What did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk do? • What government replaced the Kaiser’s? • Who were Karl Leibknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and what did they try to do? • What did the Bolsheviks change their name to? • Who were the Whites?