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White-tailed Deer in Pennsylvania. The only species we manage that, when overpopulation occurs, has a far-reaching impact (consider rabbits or squirrels) Hunters killed more than 409,000 deer during the 2004-05 deer season, a 12 percent drop from the previous season . Economic Impacts .

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The only species we manage that, when overpopulation occurs, has a far-reaching impact (consider rabbits or squirrels)
  • Hunters killed more than 409,000 deer during the 2004-05 deer season, a 12 percent drop from the previous season
economic impacts
Economic Impacts
  • ~800,000 hunters, 90% hunting deer
  • 13,955,000 hunting days
  • Total expenditures –

$941,036,000

  • Average spent per hunter

$914

  • Non-resident expenditures in PA –

$82.4 million

economic benefits
Economic Benefits
  • Federal Excise tax on firearms and ammunition
  • Hunter and trapper education
  • Gamelands acquisition
  • Non-game wildlife enhancements
  • Habitat improvements on private land
economic impacts of wildlife watching
Economic Impacts of Wildlife Watching
  • Participants – 4.8 million
  • Residents – 1.3 million
  • Non-residents – 3.4 million
  • Total expenditures - $962 million
  • Average spent per person - $253
  • Total non-resident expenditures in PA - $95 million
deer diseases
Deer Diseases
  • Bovine tuberculosis
  • Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
  • Lyme Disease in PA
    • 1982 – 2 cases
    • 2003 – 5730 (highest in US)
  • Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Epizooitic Hemorrhagic Disease
deer vehicle collision impacts
Deer-Vehicle Collision Impacts
  • Nationwide
    • 1.5 million collisions
    • 29,000 injuries and 210 deaths
    • $1.3 billion in expenses (2003)
  • Pennsylvania
    • 21 deaths from 1996-2001; 14 in 2003
    • ~40,000 accidents per year
  • PA average repair bill - $2,200
    • 40,000 x $2,200 = $88,000,000
    • doesn’t include personal injury or other property damage
    • does this effect your insurance rate?
  • Estimated 100,000 deer die annually;carcass pickup
deer aircraft collisions
Deer-Aircraft Collisions
  • Commercial and private planes commonly hit deer during landing
  • Many airports must use expensive fencing
  • 1990 to 2004, over 650 deer-aircraft collisions were reported to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
crop damage by deer
Crop Damage by Deer
  • Annual US loss -

$500 million

  • Annual PA loss –

$90 million

  • Average loss per farm - $9,000
impacts of deer on forests
Impacts of Deer on Forests
  • Forest regeneration
    • 2.1 million acres of state forest land
    • Bureau of Forestry expense - $2 million on fencing
    • Biodiversity-plants, songbirds, understory species
    • Loss of timber production - $400 million annually
negative impacts on communities
Negative Impacts on Communities
  • Landscaping and ornamentals
    • Damage to nurseries - $15,000 per member
    • Control costs - $5,000 per member
  • Deer-vehicle collisions
  • Lyme Disease
  • Community conflicts
management options
Management Options
  • No population control
    • Hands off
    • Damage control – fencing, repellents
  • Population Control
    • Non-lethal methods
      • Habitat alteration
      • Capture and relocation
    • Fertility control
lethal methods
Lethal Methods
  • Predator introduction
  • Parasite or disease introduction
  • Poison
  • Capture and kill – alter regulations, sharp-shooters, etc.
  • Bait and shoot
  • Traditional hunting
damage control
Damage Control
  • Fencing
    • how high?
    • $180-600/A depending on type & site conditions
    • maintenance required
    • aesthetics
  • Repellents
    • taste & odor

$10-400/acre for chemicals; labor?

    • noise-makers
  • Supplemental feeding-draw them to food
habitat alteration
Habitat Alteration

Reduce food and/or cover; carrying capacity differs by habitat

  • Seedling/sapling stage - 60 deer per mi2
  • Pole timber – 5 deer per mi2
  • Saw timber – 20 deer per mi2
capture relocation
Capture & Relocation
  • Drive nets, tranquilizer darts, etc.
  • $100-800 per deer depending on technique
  • Stress and injury to deer (and handlers)
  • Most areas already overpopulated with deer
  • Unfamiliarity with new area – estimated ¾ die within one year
fertility control
Fertility Control
  • Steroidal “birth control pills”; how long does it last?
    • GonaCon and Spayvac; neither are approved
  • Immunocontraceptives
  • Neutering
  • Expense, non-target effects (can they be eaten?)
  • Must impact a large % of females
  • Maximal effect may take 5+ years
hunting
Hunting

What are the PROs and CONs?

How to do it?