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Micrometeorology Boundary Layer Meteorology Surface Energy Budget.
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Micrometeorology is the study of the atmosphere near the surface and its associated turbulence and transport of scalars. It deals with the small horizontal and short temporal scales of motion in meteorology. Typically, less than 1 km and 1 hr.
The atmospheric boundary layer is formed as a consequence of the interactions between the atmosphere and the surface of earth. Micrometeorologists study these interactions.
A variety of instrumentation is used to measure the atmospheric boundary layer and related turbulence.
Stull: Chap: 4 and W&H chap: 9
The layer of air influenced by surface friction is called the planetary boundary layer (PBL).
Define the boundary layer as that part of the troposphere that is directly influenced by the presence of the earth’s surface, and responds to surface forcings with a timescale of ~ 1 hr or less.
What is turbulence?
A sonic anemometer measures at very high sampling rates. This is typically at 10 or 20 Hz. Data from a high temporal resolution time series is used to calculate the mean of the time series and subsequently a perturbation from the mean.
Once the perturbations are calculated, turbulent statistics can be calculated.
Mixes some air down
And some air up
Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux
One statistical measure of the dispersion of data about the mean is the
It is a good measure of the dispersion of a sample of BL observations. However,
Substituting this into the biased definition of variance:
Radiation flux: is the amount of radiation coming from a source per unit time in W.
Radiant intensity: is the radiant flux leaving a point on the source, per unit solid angle of space surrounding the point. [W/steradian]
Radiance: is the radiant flux emitted by a unit area of a source or scattered by a unit area of a surface.[W m-2 sr-1]
Irradiance: is the radiant flux incident on a receiving surface from all directions, per unit area W m-2.
Absorptance, reflectance, transmittance:fractions of the incident flux that are absorbed, reflected, or transmitted by a medium.
Global Solar radiation: is the solar irradiance received on a horizontal surface [W m-2]. This is the sum of direct solar beam plus the diffuse component of skylight, and is the physical quantity measured by a pyranometer.
Visible Radiation: is the spectral range of the standard observer. Most of the visible radiation lies between 400 nm and 730 nm.
Ultraviolet Radiation: is the radiation with wavelengths in the range 100 to 400 nm. It is subdivided into three ranges: UVA is 315-400 nm, UVB is 280-315 nm, and UVC is 100-280 nm.
Infrared Radiation: is the radiation with wavelengths longer than 730 nm.
Direct solar radiation: is the radiation emitted from the solid angle of the sun’s disc, received on a surface perpendicular to the axis of this cone, comprising mainly unscattered and unreflected solar radiation.
At the top of the atmosphere this is usually:
1367 W m-2. The direct solar radiation at the earth’s surface is the physical quantity measured by a pyrheliometer.
Diffuse Solar Radiation: (Sky radiation) is the downward scattered and reflected radiation coming from the whole hemisphere. Diffuse radiation can be measured by a pyranometer mounted in a shadow band.
Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR): is the band of solar radiation between 400-700 nm that plants use in the photosynthesis process. PAR is usually expressed in moles of photons, a mole being Avogadro’s number of photons, 6.022 x 1023 photons.
Albedo: is the fraction of incoming solar radiation to reflected solar radiation.
α = SWreflect / SWincoming
Two primary methods in the measurement of radiation:
Thermal detection: response to heat gain or loss due to absorption of incoming or emission of outgoing radiation.
Photovoltaic detectors: convert absorbed radiation to a voltage.
Shortwave or solar radiation is defined to be 0.3 μm to 4 μm BUT since high-quality glass windows are transparent from 0.3 to 3 μm, an upper limit of 3 μm is generally accepted.
Longwave radiation sensors have windows transparent to radiation from 3 or 4 μmto at least 50 μm.
Radiation measuring instruments can be classified according to their use. The generic term for all radiation measuring instruments is the radiometer.
A pyranometer is used to measure global solar radiation, so it must respond to both the direct solar beam and to diffuse sky radiation from the whole hemisphere. The sensing element must be a horizontal flat surface.
A pyrgeometer is used to measure global, long-wave earth radiation.
An instrument that measures the difference between incoming and outgoing radiation is called a pyrradiometer or netradiometer.
Typical sensitivity of a thermopile pyranometer is 4 μV W-1 m2 and the time constant 5 s.
The energy budget at the earth’s surface can be thought of as energy transferred through a layer at the surface. This includes turbulent energy transfer with the air above it, radiative transfer through the top of it, and molecular energy transfer into the soil below it.
-Q* = QH + QE – QG + ΔQs
-Q* = net upward radiation at surface
QH = upward sensible heat flux
QE = upward latent heat flux
QG = upward molecular heat flux into the bottom
ΔQS = storage/residual
Diffuse and direct
(10 min Ave of Covariances)
Surface Energy Balance: Q*=QH+QL+QG