Boundary layer concept. Laminar flow. Laminar Boundary Layer Flow. The laminar boundary layer is a very smooth flow, while the turbulent boundary layer contains swirls or “eddies.” The laminar flow creates less skin friction drag than the turbulent flow, but is less stable.
L1,L2,L3 = length of pipes 1,2 and 3
d1,d2,d3 = diameter of pipes 1,2,3
v1,v2,v3= velocity of flow through pipes 1,2,3
f1,f2,f3 = coefficient of frictions for pipes 1,2,3
H = difference of water level in the two tanks
The discharge passing through the pipe is same.
Again join together downstream to form a single pipe then the branch pipes are said to be connected in parallel. The discharge through the main is increased by connecting pipes in parallel
the rate of flow in the main pipe is equal to the sum of rate of flow through branch pipes.
Loss of head for branch pipe1=loss of head for branch pipe 2
Moody Diagram that can be used to estimate friction coefficients
EL = H = p / W + v2 / 2 g + h = constant along a streamline
(EL ) Energy Line
HGL = p / W + h
The hydraulic grade line lies one velocity head below the energy line.