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Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms

Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms

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Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms

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  1. 17.1 The Linnaean System of Classification Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms • Linnaeus - developed the scientific naming system

  2. 17.1 The Linnaean System of Classification Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • species King • Phillip • Came • Over • From • Great • spain

  3. 17.1 The Linnaean System of Classification • Genus and species • uses Latin words • Both written in italics (typed) underlined (written) • Genus always capitalized • species always lowercase • Binomial nomenclature - two-part scientific naming system.

  4. Hominid Fossil Record Paleoanthropologist – study fossil evidence of human evolution • Curvature of the spine • position at which the spine attaches to the skull • shape of the pelvis or hipbones • Skull fragment • estimate brain size and wear on fossil tooth can indicate diet

  5. Human Classification Kingdom: Animalia • Multicellular • Heterotroph • Sexual reproduction • Movement • No cell walls Phylum: Chordata • notochord – (nerve chord) Class: Mammalia • warm blooded • Hair • live birth • produce milk

  6. Order: Primate • Suborder: Anthropodia Family: Hominidae • Bipedal – walk on two legs Genus: Homo Species: sapiens • Subspecies: sapiens

  7. Movable fingers & toes • Flattened nails instead of claws • Hands & some feet prehensile • Color vision • Front-facing eyes • broad overlapping field of vision • depth perception Order: Primate • 2 main groups • Prosimians • Anthropoids

  8. #1 Prosimians - oldest living primates. • Mostly small and nocturnal • Lemurs, lorsies, tarsiers • Majority live in trees

  9. Marmosets, monkeys, apes, & humans Well developed collar bone Rotating shoulder joint Partially rotating elbow joint Opposable thumb Similar dental formula (same # & arrangement of teeth) #2 Anthropoids

  10. Anthropoids • Humans & great apes – larger cranial capacity and more complex brain structure • Humans & Chimpanzees - High degree of similarity with DNA (99% identical) • Person to Person – 99.6% identical DNA • No genetic basis for race

  11. Family: Hominidae Bipedal – ability to walk primarily on 2 legs • Cup-shaped pelvis (supports internal organs) • S-shaped spine (upright posture) • Toes are shorter and aligned (balance) • Attachment of spine to underneath the skull • Locking knee-joint • Important adaptive advantage: • foraging • carrying infants and food • using tools Enlargement of brain – more vertical face • areas of brain devoted to the production & understanding of speech

  12. Australopithecus afarensis • Lucy • 3.2 million-year-old fossil • Cranial capacity equal to a chimps • A little over a meter tall • Key – indicated bipedalism originated before large brains • Advantage bipedalism: • Foraging • Carrying infants etc (food) • Tools

  13. Australopithecus africanus • 2.3 – 3 million-years-old • Taller & heavier • Slightly larger cranial capacity

  14. Genus: Homo • Larger cranial capacity • Slightly taller

  15. Homo habilis • “Handy human” • Stone tools • Some speech may have existed • Fact: Tool marks on animal bones • Inference: Ate meat

  16. Homo erectus • “Upright human” • First hominid to travel out of Africa • Thick skull with large brow ridges • low forehead and large protruding teeth • Could have been as tall as modern human • Lived in caves • Fact: Charred bones • Inference: Fire for cooking and warmth

  17. Homo sapiens Neandertals • Heavy bones, thick brow ridges, & protruding teeth • Slightly larger cranial capacity than modern humans • About 5ft tall and heavily built • Lived in caves and stone shelters • Fact: Tools shaped to scrape animal hides • Inference: Clothing

  18. Modern Homo sapiens Cro-magnon • Cranial capacity equal to that of modern humans • High forehead • Lack of protruding brow ridge & teeth • Taller than Neandertals (6 ft) • Efficient homebuilders, tools became more sophisticated • Interbred with Neandertal • Neandertal genes are still in our genome

  19. Australopithecus afarensis Homo habilis Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens