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Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. PowerPoint Presentation
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Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. A taxon is a group of organisms in a classification system. Binomial nomenclature is a two-part scientific naming system. uses Latin words scientific names always written in italics

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slide1

Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms.

  • A taxon is a group of organisms in a classification system.
  • Binomial nomenclature is a two-part scientific naming system.
    • uses Latin words
    • scientific names always written in italics
    • two parts are the genus name and species descriptor
slide2

Genus includes one or more physically similar species.

    • Species in the same genus are thought to be closely related.
    • Genus name is always capitalized.
  • Species descriptor is the second part of a scientific name.
    • always lowercase
    • always follows genusname; never written alone

Tyto alba

slide3

Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today.

*Linnaean system based only on physical similarities.

*Linnaeus’ classification system has seven levels.

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
modern classification using evolution

Modern Classification using Evolution

Phylogeny= The evolutionary history for a group of species

Cladistics= classification based on common ancestry.

Cladogram is an evolutionary tree made using cladistics.

A clade is a group of species that shares a common ancestor.

slide5

Tetrapodaclade

1

Amniotaclade

2

3

Reptiliaclade

Diapsidaclade

4

5

Archosauriaclade

DERIVED CHARACTER

FEATHERS & TOOTHLESS BEAKS.

SKULL OPENINGS IN FRONT OF THE EYE & IN THE JAW

OPENING IN THE SIDE OF THE SKULL

SKULL OPENINGS BEHIND THE EYE

NODE

EMBRYO PROTECTED BY AMNIOTIC FLUID

FOUR LIMBS WITH DIGITS

*Clade- “V-shaped” area representing a group of organisms that share certain traits (from a common ancestor).

  • *Derived characters represent traits on cladogram (hash marks).

CLADE

*Nodes represent the most recent ancestors of a clade (place of branch).

slide6

Molecular data may confirm classification based on physical similarities or it may lead scientists to propose a new classification.

  • 1 type of molecular data = molecular clocks
    • Mutations add up at a constant rate in related species.
    • This rate is the ticking of the molecular clock.
    • More time = more mutations.
    • Mitochondrial DNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provide two types of molecular clocks.