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Nuclear and Radiation. Done by: Soon Wei Jun. Nuclear power. Produced by controlled nuclear reactions A long-time threat to the people and the environment Some nuclear accidents include the recent Japan disaster. . The recent Japan disaster.

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Nuclear and Radiation

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    1. Nuclear and Radiation Done by: Soon Wei Jun

    2. Nuclear power • Produced by controlled nuclear reactions • A long-time threat to the people and the environment • Some nuclear accidents include the recent Japan disaster.

    3. The recent Japan disaster • Most people would have heard about the recent Japan disaster which took away countless number of lives. • For those who have not, this is just a article to share:

    4. What causes radiation in the Japan disaster? • Spend fuel rods in danger of evaporation • Earthquake • triggered Tsunami • Tsunami destroyed cooling pad of reactors • Rods exposed to atmosphere • Steam carrying radioactive particles travelled. • Uranium heated up and emitted radiation.

    5. Radiation • Energy that travels in particles, waves or rays. • As it passes through cells, bonds in atoms and molecules are broken down. Cells which attempt to repair themselves lead to mutations of radiation, which causes diseases.

    6. Radiation • Measured in millisievert (mSv) • Effects on human body varies according to the different amount mSv absorbed.

    7. Why is it harmful? • Cesium Once radioactive cesium enters the body, it spreads. As it is able to last up to 30 years in water, soil and body, it is mist likely able to cause cell damage and other diseases, such as cancer.

    8. Why is it harmful? • Iodine Radioactive has a shorter life span of 3 to 4 months. However, it is accumulated in the thyroid gland which processes natural iodine in the body, and results in a more concentrated damage and a higher risk of thyroid cancer.

    9. Why is it harmful? • Plutonium It is in many ways the worst radioactive material. It lasts for as long as thousands of years and it is accumulated in the lungs, bones and liver, causing cancer in these organs.

    10. Effects of radiation on human body • Rem is a unit of radiation exposure in man • Hair • Rapid hair loss at 200 rems or higher • Brain -Direct damage to brain cells at 5000 rems or higher. -Can cause seizures or even, death

    11. Effects of radiation on human body • Thyroid -Radioactive iodine can destroy all or part of the thyroid • Heart -Intense exposure to radioactive materials at 1000 to 5000 rems can cause heart failure and death.

    12. Effects of radiation on human body • Gastrointestinal Tract -Intestinal tract lining will be damaged at 200 rems or more. -Will cause bloody vomitting and DNA of surviving cells will also be harmed. • Blood system -At 100 rems or more, blood lymphocyte cell count will be reduced.

    13. Effects of radiation on human body • Reproductive tract -These areas of the body can be damaged even at rem levels as low as 200, since the reproductive cells divide rapidly. -Will cause victims to sterile

    14. Effect on others • Plants -Can destroy plants or be contained in them. If the plants are cut, radiation can be released back into the air. If the plants are consumed, radiation will be passed to consumers.

    15. Effect on others 2. Animals -Radiation can be absorbed by animals and will cause complication like those in a human body.

    16. Effect on food-chain • Radiation particles absorbed by soil or water. • Plants absorbed the harmful particles. • The food-chain will die out. • Particles will be passed on to other consumers. • Particles are absorbed by plant consumers.

    17. Example of effect on ecosystem Explosion at nuclear plants spews radioactive materials. Iodine survives for 3 to 4 months in water and the ground. As it travels, iodine and cesium particles are deposited. Anything that grows in soil is contaminated. People who consume the milk are affected. Spread the infection beyond cloud zone. Cows that eat contaminated plants are affected. Animals that feed on plants are affected.

    18. Reflections • Personally, I feel that after embarking on this ACE project, I learnt more about radiation and its harmful causes. • Through this project, I was able to clarify my doubts on radiation. As I looked through the information, I understood the harmful effects it has on the ecosystem.

    19. Reflections(continued) • Lastly, I hope that Singapore will be thorough in the evaluation of nuclear plants and dropped the idea of constructing a nuclear plant.

    20. This is the end of my presentation! • Thank you!!