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Nuclear Radiation. Reference chapter: 22. Some nuclei are unstable. They can change into isotopes or different elements. Types of nuclear radiation : alpha particles, beta-particles, gamma rays. Heading Vocabulary Important Facts. Alpha Particles (a).

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nuclear radiation
Nuclear Radiation

Reference chapter: 22

  • Some nuclei are unstable.
  • They can change into isotopes or different elements.
  • Types of nuclear radiation: alpha particles, beta-particles, gamma rays



Important Facts

alpha particles a
Alpha Particles (a)
  • Alpha particlesare made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
  • (+)positively charged
  • Massive
  • Barely pass through a sheet of paper.
  • Remove electrons from matter as it passes through. (ionize)
beta particles
Beta Particles (ß)
  • Beta particles are formed from break down of a nucleus into 1 e- and 1 proton.
  • (-) negatively charged
  • Fast-moving electrons
  • The e- is thrown from nucleus.
  • Faster than alpha particles
  • Stopped by a thin sheet of metal
  • Ionize other atoms
gamma rays
Gamma rays (γ)
  • than light or X-rays Electromagnetic energy stronger with higher frequency and lower wavelength
  • No charge so they do not ionize
  • cause damage because of high energy.
  • Concrete or 1.5 cm of lead can stop it from traveling through

Left page IN:100

Sketch alpha, beta & gamma decay pictures & the chart beneath the pictures

half life
Half Life

The half life of sodium-25 is 1 minute. How much of a 100 g sample of Na-25 would be left after 1 minute? How much would be left after 2 minutes?

  • Time it takes for ½ of the substance to decay.
  • Different half-lives for different isotopes
  • Can be used to predict how old something is.
nuclear forces

More Nuclear Decay

Nuclear Forces
  • Nuclei with too many or too few neutrons are unstable and become radioactive.
  • More than 83 protons-always unstable, decay
  • Stability depends on the force that holds the nucleus together.
  • Acts between protons and neutrons.
  • Causes them to attract.
  • Only happens over a short distance.
fission vs fusion
Fission vs Fusion
  • Fission is the breaking down of a nucleus
  • Fission can start chain reactions
  • Fusion is combining nuclei
  • Both release a ton of energy
helpful radiation

Radiation in our world

Helpful radiation
  • Can be natural-soil, sun, water, plants
  • Our sun emits solar radiation
  • Can actually change DNA and cause birth defects
  • Smoke alarms
  • Treat cancer
  • Tracers in medicine
  • Tracers in geology
  • Nuclear power-fission
left page assignment in 102
Left Page Assignment IN: 102
  • Make a drawing of fission and fusion.
  • Fission is the breaking down of the nucleus.
  • Fusion is the combining of nuclei.
  • Draw what you think each of these would look like. Make sure to label them.
  • Make a Venn Diagram Comparing & Contrasting them on the bottom half of page 102.


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