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501503742 Nuclear and Radiation Physics. Nuclear Physics at BAU http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/ This course http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/nuclear-radiation/. Before we start, let us tackle the following: Why nuclear physics? Why radiation physics? Why in Jordan? Interdisciplinary.

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501503742 nuclear and radiation physics
501503742 Nuclear and Radiation Physics

Nuclear Physics at BAU

http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/

This course

http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/nuclear-radiation/

  • Before we start, let us tackle the following:
  • Why nuclear physics?
  • Why radiation physics?
  • Why in Jordan?
  • Interdisciplinary.
  • Applied.

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

general subjects to be covered
General subjects to be covered
  • This is an introductory course that will cover the following general subjects
  • Nuclear properties.
  • Binding energy and nuclear stability.
  • Nuclear models.
  • Spin and moments.
  • Nuclear forces.
  • The structure of the nucleus.
  • Nuclear reactions: energetics and general cross-section behavior.
  • Neutron moderation, fission, controlled fission and fusion.
  • Radioactive decays.
  • Interactions of nuclear radiations (charged particles, gammas, and neutrons) with matter.

This phenomenological course provides the launch point for other nuclear physics courses that will follow.

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

level test
Level Test
  • Write down whatever you know about nuclear spin.
  • Describe how can either fission or fusion produce energy.
  • What is …
          • Compton scattering?
          • Energy straggling?
          • Annihilation?
          • Neutron activation?
          • Isotopes, Isotones, Isobars, Isomers?
          • Parity.

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

grading
Grading

Mid-term Exam 25%

Project, quizzes and HWs 25%

Final Exam 50%

  • Homeworks are due after one week unless otherwise announced.
  • Remarks or questions marked in red without being announced as homeworks should be also seriously considered!
  • Some tasks can (or should) be sent by email:
  • saed@dababneh.com

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

proposed projects
Proposed Projects
  • Experiments to determine nuclear properties.
  • Nuclear power generation.
  • Nuclear medicine.
  • Health physics.
  • Accelerator driven systems.
  • Nucleosynthesis.
  • Technological applications (e.g. Material Science).
  • Radioactive ion beams.
  • Neutrino physics.
  • Radiological dating.
  • Environmental radioactivity.
  • ….. (your own selected subject).
  • Decide on the title of your project within two weeks.
  • Due date (for written version): December 6th.
  • Presentation: Will be scheduled later.

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

scale and objectives
Scale and Objectives
  • Dimensional scale:
  • Order of magnitude of 1 x 10-15 m
  •  1 femtometer  1 fm  1 fermi.
  • Too small for direct investigation.
  • What about time and energy scales?
  • We need to answer …..
  • What are the building blocks of a nucleus?
  • How do they move relative to each other?
  • What laws governing them?
  • We need to understand:
  • Nuclear forces (Q2, Q3).
  • Nuclear structure (Q2, Q3).
  • We also need High Energy Physics (to answer Q1).

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

constants
Constants

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

nomenclature
Nomenclature

Element vs. Nuclide.

94 natural chemical elements, total > 100.

Element Atomic number (Z)  chemically identical.

~3000 nuclides……? How many are stable?

Same Z but different neutron number (N) Isotopes.

Total number of nucleons = Z+N = A mass number.

Chart of Nuclides

Clickable…!

Radioactive Stable Radioactive

redundant

Same mass number Isobars chemically dissimilar, parallel nuclear features (Radius …).  decay.

Same neutron number Isotones?????.

Same Z and same A  Isomers  metastable.

Stable isotope (Isotopic)Abundance.

Radioactive isotope Half-life.

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

stable isotopes
Stable Isotopes

HWc 1

Then plot Z vs. N.

Odd A Even A

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

basic nuclear properties
Basic Nuclear Properties
  • Properties Structure
  • The energy of the nucleon in the nucleus is in the order of 10 MeV.
  • HW 1 Calculate the velocity of a 10 MeV proton and show that it is almost 15% of the speed of light. (Perform both classical and relativistic calculations).
  • Relativistic effects are not important in considering the motion of nucleons in the nucleus.

HW 2Calculate the wavelength of a 10 MeV proton and compare it with the nuclear scale. (Perform both classical and relativistic calculations). Is the nucleus thus a classical or a quantum system?

  • HW 0 Krane, Ch. 2.

HW 3Calculate the wavelength for an electron of the same energy to show that it is much too large to be within the nucleus. (Perform both classical and relativistic calculations). Discuss the proton-electron nuclear hypothesis!

Chadwick, neutron.

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

basic nuclear properties1
Basic Nuclear Properties
  • Static nuclear properties (Time-independent):
  • Electric charge, radius, mass, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic dipole moment, electric quadrupole moment, energies of excited states.
  • Dynamic properties (Time-dependent):
  • Self-induced (Radioactive decay).
  • Forced (Nuclear reactions)cross sections. .
  • The key: Interaction between individual nucleons.
  • Excited states: atomic intervals ~ eV.
  • nuclear intervals ~ 104 – 106eV.
  • Decays and reactions: Conservation laws and selection rules.
  • HWc 2Where to find nuclear data???

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

nuclear mass introduction
Nuclear Mass (Introduction)
  • Unified atomic mass unit u based on 12C.
  • Replaced both physical and chemical amu based on 16O and natural oxygen, respectively (Find conversion factors).
  • 1 u = M(12C)/12 = ……… kg = …………… MeV/c2.
  • Rest masses
  • u MeV/c2 kg
  • electron ………… …………… ………
  • proton ………… …………… ………
  • neutron ………… …………… ………
  • 12C 12 …………… ………
  • Avogadro’s number .. !! What is the number of atoms in 1 kg of pure 238U?
  • Mass  Stability. E = mc2.Tendency towards lower energy  Radioactivity.
  • Neutron heavier than proton  “Free” neutron decays (T½ = ???):

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

nuclear mass introduction1
Nuclear Mass (Introduction)
  • Nuclear masses measured to high accuracy:
        • mass spectrograph.
        • energy measurement in nuclear reactions.
  • Mass decrement = difference between actual mass and mass number:
  • Δ = m – A
  • http://www.eas.asu.edu/~holbert/eee460/massdefect.html
  • Negative Δ mass into energy.
  • Binding Energy?
  • Stability?
  • Fission?
  • Fusion?
  • More later ……..
  • Usually atomic masses are tabulated.
  • Mass of the atom < ZmH + Nmn.

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).

the valley of stability
The Valley of Stability

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).