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Study of Biology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Study of Biology
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  1. Study of Biology

  2. What is Biology? • Biologyis the study of all living things • Living things are called organisms • Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals

  3. All Living Things Share Common Characteristics • Basic Unit is the Cell • They Reproduce • All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) • Grow & Develop

  4. Common Characteristics • Obtain & Use Materials & Energy • Respond To Their Environment • Maintain A Stable Internal Environment • AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time

  5. Characteristics of Organisms The Rafflesia, the worlds largest type of flower. Its nickname is “the corpse flower” because it emits an odor that  smells like decaying flesh. Finger Puppet Monkeys or Baby Pygmy Marmosets?

  6. All Organisms are made of Cells

  7. Cell Facts • Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism • The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes • These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles • Bacteria are examples

  8. More Cell Facts • More complex cells are called Eukaryotes • These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles • Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples

  9. Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits

  10. Sexual Reproduction Involves 2 parents Egg fertilized (internally or externally) by sperm to make a ZYGOTE Offspring DIFFERENT from parents Two Types of Reproduction

  11. Asexual Reproduction Involves a single organism or cell Cell divides Offspring IDENTICAL to parent Examples: Budding, Gemmules, Fragmentation, Regeneration, Parthogenisis, Binary Fission, Cloning. Two Types of Reproduction

  12. Cells Have a Genetic Code

  13. Genetic Code • DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms • All organisms contain DNA • DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work

  14. Organisms Grow & Develop

  15. Growth & Development • Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT • Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism

  16. Cells Require Food & Energy

  17. Autotrophs can make their own food Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy Food Requirements

  18. Food Requirements • Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food • They must consume other organisms • Herbivores eat plants • Carnivores eat meat • Omnivores eat plants & animals

  19. Metabolism • Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism • All require energy • Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth

  20. Organisms Respond to Stimuli/Adaptation • Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce

  21. Homeostasis • Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life • Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.

  22. Living Things Evolve • Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments. • Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms

  23. Life is Organized on Several Levels

  24. Levels • Atoms • Molecules • Organelles • Cells – life starts here • Tissues • Organs • System • Organism