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### Your Turn..

### Oh no… Here come the metric problems!

I. Science means ‘to know’ (in Latin)

A. Science is:

- A body of knowledge
- A process to learn about

the world

B. Biology is:

- Study of Life
- Biologists study the diversity of Life

I. Characteristics of Living Things:

1. Living things are made up of cells

2. Living things reproduce (not essential

for survival but essential for continuation

of species (a group of organisms that can

interbreed and produce fertile offspring in

nature)

3. Living things change: growth and

development

4. Living things adjust to their surroundings (stimulus/response interactions)

5. Maintain homeostasis (balance internal condition)

6. Living things adapt and evolve

7. All Living things must Obtain and use energy

8. Have DNA

Living Organisms – possess all of the characteristics of life

Homeo…. What???

- Homeostasis: Process by which organisms maintain constant and stable internal conditions.

ie: In order to survive, there are several conditions that your body must remain stable. Like body temperature, salt and sugar levels, etc.

Your body works like the furnace in your home.

The Scientific Method: a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

- Hypothesis: An educated guess based upon an observation.
- Prediction: A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future. Usually written as an If /Then statement.
- Observation: Using your senses to

gather data.

- Inference: The process of making

decisions about what the data means.

Observation Vs.Inference Activity

- Mrs. Wade will be absent for the rest of the term. She won the lottery and thus decided to take a cruise around the world with her friends, Mrs. Walton and Mrs. Fernandez. She has left each team a box containing 3 personal items. She would like you to make 2 observations and two inferences about each item (you have 5 minutes for this activity).
- Non-related example: You observed that the ground was wet. Therefore, you infer that it had just rained.

Applying The Scientific Method

make observations /

state problem

form hypothesis

design controlled

experiment

collect data

analyze results

may not support

hypothesis

may support

hypothesis

draw conclusion /

publish

form a new

hypothesis

B. Parts of a Controlled Experiment

1. Types of Variables

- Independent variable

(aka Manipulated variable):

- a factor that is manipulated

to see what the result will be

- Dependent variable

(aka Responding variable):

- a factor that responds to the changes in the independent variable

Parts of a Controlled Experiment

Control Group: the group for which the testing conditions are not applied (AKA the Placebo).

Experimental groups:

- the groups where all conditions are held constant EXCEPT the one being tested

Controlled variables: Variables that the experimenters keep the same throughout the experiment.

An Example Experiment

Mrs. Fernandez’s son, Dominick, would like to know what will happen to his gummy bears if he places them in water. So, he obtains three (3) gummy bears (all are of the same brand). He places one in 20 mls of water for 3hrs, the other for 12 hrs, and the last for 24 hrs. He uses a 25ml graduated cylinder each bear.

3 mL

6 mL

0 mL

Your Turn….

- What is the independent variable in Dominick’s experiment? In what axis do graph it?
- What is the dependent variable in the experiment? In what axis do you graph it?
- What are the controlled variables in the experiment?

C. Drawing a Conclusion

The conclusion should always have two main parts.

- Confirm or reject the hypothesis
- Was the hypothesis correct?
- Overall statement of what was learned
- What happened and why did it happen?
- What’s the main idea?

D. Publishing Results

- When a hypothesis has been tested and supported many times, a theory is formulated and published.
- A theory is the best explanation science has to offer about a problem.

III. Other things to keep in mind:

A. Always use metric system!

- Distance: meters
- Volume: liters
- Temperature: oC
- Mass: grams

How big are these four ticks?

2

3

MetersLitersGrams

How do you use the “ladder” method?

1st – Determine your starting point.

2nd – Count the “jumps” to your ending point.

3rd – Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction.

Starting Point

Ending Point

__.

__.

__.

2

3

1

Ladder Method

KILO1000Units

HECTO100Units

DEKA10Units

DECI0.1Unit

CENTI0.01Unit

MILLI0.001Unit

4 km = _________ m

How many jumps does it take?

4.

= 4000 m

1. Quantitative: produces numerical data that can be comparatively analyzed in graphs and tables

a. Tables: Title Table, Columns & Rows have titles

b. Graphs:

-3 main types: line Graphs (measures change/ time), bar (used for comparing), & circle (shows %)

2. Qualitative: Descriptive data; written descriptions of observations

Gummy Bear Lab

Read lab directions in lab hand-out and on board

- Conduct the lab.
- Clean up (everything must be spotless when lab is completed).
- Graph and answer questions
- Turn in assignment.

Review

OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.

HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.

PROCEDURE

Uncovered jars

Covered jars

Controlled Variables:

jars, type of meat,

location, temperature,

time

Several

days pass

Manipulated Variables:

gauze covering that

keeps flies away from

meat

Responding Variable:

whether maggots

appear

Maggots appear

No maggots appear

CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.

Redi’s Experiment onSpontaneous GenerationIdentifying Variables

- Two groups of students were tested to compare their speed working math problems. Each student was given the same problems. One group used calculators and the other group computed without calculators.
- What is the independent/manipulated variable?
- What is the dependent/responding variable?
- What is the controlled variable?

Identifying Variables

- A study was done with an electromagnet system made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails were used and the number of paper clips that the electromagnet could pick up was measured.
- What is the manipulated variable?
- What is the responding variable?
- What are the controlled variables?

Identifying Variables

- A study was attempted to find if the length of the string in a string telephone affected its sound clarity.
- What is the independent variable?
- What is the dependent variable?
- What are the controlled variables?

Do the next three examples on your own and see how well you understand the concept.

Identifying Variables

- An experiment was performed to determine how the amount of coffee grounds could affect the taste of coffee. The same kind of coffee, the same percolator, the same amount and type of water, the same perking time, and the same electrical source were used.
- What is the manipulated variable?
- What is the responding variable?
- What are the controlled variables?

Identifying Variables

- Students of different ages were given the same puzzle to assemble. The puzzle assembly time was measured.
- What is the independent/manipulated variable?
- What is the dependent/responding variable?
- What is the controlled variable?

Identifying Variables

- A study was done to find if different tire treads affect the braking distance of a car.
- What is the independent variable?
- What is the dependent variable?
- What is the controlled variable?

But That’s NOT All!

A law is a statement of fact that describe, in an action or set of actions. It is generally accepted to be true and universal, and can sometimes be proven mathematically. For example, the law of gravity or Newton’s laws of motion.

What is a scientific LAW?

But then what is a THEORY?

A THEORY is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon proven hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers. One scientist cannot create a theory; he can only create a hypothesis. For example, the theory of relativity or evolution.

But That’s NOT All ALL!

- How is THEORY used in everyday speech that is scientifically incorrect?

- Bryant might say that he has a theory that Mrs. Wade will yell at the class today…

- What would be a more ACCURATE word to use?

- If he had made the same statement but had replaced theory with hypothesis, THEN he would be scientifically correct!

Practice, practice, practice until your good becomes your better and your better becomes your best!

B. 4 kilometers or 4400 meters

C. 12 centimeters or 102 millimeters

D. 1200 millimeters or 1 meter

km

Metric Units

m

cm

mm

The basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m.

Standard: The distance traveled by light in absolute vacuum in 1⁄299,792,458 of a second.

Metric Units

1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters

1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm)

1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm)

Click the image to watch a short video about the meter.

Which is larger?

What is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cm

What is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mm

What is the length of the line to the nearest centimeter? ________cm

HINT: Round to the nearest centimeter – no decimals.

Measuring Length

How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter?

Ruler: http://www.k12math.com/math-concepts/measurement/ruler-cm.jpg

A. 1 kilogram or 1500 grams

B. 1200 milligrams or 1 gram

C. 12 milligrams or 12 kilograms

D. 4 kilograms or 4500 grams

kg

Metric Units

cg

mg

g

Mass refers to the amount of matter in an object.

The base unit of mass in the metric system in the kilogram and is represented by kg.

Standard: 1 kilogram is equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK), a platinum-iridium cylinder kept by the BIPM at Sèvres, France.

Metric Units

1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g)

1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg)

Click the image to watch a short video about mass.

Which is larger?

Kilogram Prototype Image - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilogram

We will be using electronic balances to find the mass of various objects in this course.

A weigh boat, paper towel of some container with be placed on the balance first and you will tare it, zero it out. The the objects are placed in the container and on the scale. The digital read-out has two decimal places, which is the mass of the object in grams.

Top Image: http://www.southwestscales.com/Ohaus_Triple_Beam_750-SO.jpgBottom Image: http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/biology/units/laboratory/graphics/triplebeambalance.jpg

Measuring Mass – Electronic Balance

a- make sure the balance reads 0.00 g

b-place weigh boat or container you will use to hold the material that is to be massed on balance and press ON button just long enough for the read-out to once again show 0.00 g (tare weigh boat)

c. remove the weigh boat and put the material in it

d. carefully place full weigh boat on balance and read to 2 decimal places

e- remove items, clean up, & zero out balance

Metric Units

cL

mL

L

Volume is the amount of space an object takes up.

The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l.

Standard: 1 liter is equal to one cubic decimeter

Metric Units

1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)

1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) = 1 gram*

Which is larger?

Click the image to watch a short video about volume.

A. 1 liter or 1500 milliliters

B. 200 milliliters or 1.2 liters

C. 12 cm3 or 1.2 milliliters*

* When referring to waterLiter Image: http://www.dmturner.org/Teacher/Pictures/liter.gif

A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides.

Measuring Volume

We will be using graduated cylinders to find the volume of liquids and other objects.

Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water.

What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mL

Top Image: http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/online/2006/grade8/science/images/20graphicaa.gifBottom Image: http://morrisonlabs.com/meniscus.htm

What is the volume of water in each cylinder?

Images created at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework/downloads/SWF/measuring_cylinder.swf

A

B

C

Pay attention to the scales for each cylinder.

8 cm

10 cm

We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement.

Amount of H2O with object = ______About of H2O without object = ______Difference = Volume = ______

http://resources.edb.gov.hk/~s1sci/R_S1Science/sp/en/syllabus/unit14/new/testingmain1.htm

Measuring Solid Volume

We can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height.

_____ X _____ X _____ = _____

2

3

MetersLitersGrams

How do you use the “ladder” method?

1st – Determine your starting point.

2nd – Count the “jumps” to your ending point.

3rd – Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction.

Starting Point

Ending Point

__.

__.

__.

2

3

1

Remember the Ladder Method

KILO1000Units

HECTO100Units

DEKA10Units

DECI0.1Unit

CENTI0.01Unit

MILLI0.001Unit

4 km = _________ m

How many jumps does it take?

4.

= 4000 m

Lets Practice Metric Conversions!!!

Write the correct abbreviation for each metric unit.

1) Kilogram _____ 4) Milliliter _____ 7) Kilometer _____

2) Meter _____ 5) Millimeter _____ 8) Centimeter _____

3) Gram _____ 6) Liter _____ 9) Milligram _____

Try these conversions, using the ladder method.

10) 2000 mg = _______ g 15) 5 L = _______ mL 20) 16 cm = _______ mm

11) 104 km = _______ m 16) 198 g = _______ kg 21) 2500 m = _______ km

12) 480 cm = _____ m 17) 75 mL = _____ L 22) 65 g = _____ mg

13) 5.6 kg = _____ g 18) 50 cm = _____ m 23) 6.3 cm = _____ mm

14) 8 mm = _____ cm 19) 5.6 m = _____ cm 24) 120 mg = _____ g

1. kg

2. m

3. g

4. ml

5. mm

6. L

7. km

8. cm

9. mg

10. 2 g

11. 104000 m

12. 4.8 m

13. 5600 g

14. .8 cm

15. 5000 ml

16. 0.198 kg

17. 0.075 l

18. 0.5 m

19. 560 cm

20. 160 mm

21. 2.5 km

22. 65000 mg

23. 63 mm

24. 0.12 g

25. <

26. >

27. =

28. =

29. <

30. >

Differentiate between Compound Light Microscopes and Electron Microscopes

light

electrons

eyepieceobjective

much greater magnification

2000

Label the parts of the microscope:

a- eyepiece

b- stage

c- diaphragm

d- coarse adjustment

e- fine adjustment

f- arm

g- objective

h- base

a

d

e

f

g

b

c

h

Microscopes

- What is a light/compound microscope?
- http://www.southwestschools.org/juniorschool/jsfaculty/Microscopes/compoundscope.html

Microscopes

Allows scientists to view a universe too small to

be seen with a light microscope. They don’t use

light waves; they use electrons (negatively charged

electrical particles) to magnify objects up to two

million times.

What is an electron microscope?

What is the difference between TEM (transmission electron microscope) and a SEM (scanning electron microscope)?

-> click on cool linkhttp://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/interact/vemwindow.html

TEMs allows beams of electrons to go through the

specimen while SEMs beams of electrons bounce

off of the specimen and result in a 3D image.

All images are black and white…why?

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