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Study of Biology. What is Biology?. Biology is the study of all living things Living things are called organisms Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals. Themes of Biology. Cell structure and function Stability and homeostasis Reproduction and inheritance

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Presentation Transcript
what is biology
What is Biology?
  • Biologyis the study of all living things
  • Living things are called organisms
  • Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals
themes of biology
Themes of Biology

Cell structure and function

Stability and homeostasis

Reproduction and inheritance


Interdependence of organisms

Matter, energy, and organization


all living things share common characteristics
All Living Things Share Common Characteristics
  • Basic Unit is the Cell
  • They Reproduce
  • All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)
  • Grow & Develop
common characteristics
Common Characteristics
  • Obtain & Use Materials & Energy
  • Respond To Their Environment
  • Maintain A Stable Internal Environment
  • AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time
facts about cells
Facts About Cells
  • Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism
  • All cells contain living material called cytoplasm
  • All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell
more cell facts
More Cell Facts
  • Cells are complex & highly organized
  • Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs

e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars

more cell facts1
More Cell Facts
  • The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes
  • These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
  • Bacteria are examples
more cell facts2
More Cell Facts
  • More complex cells are called Eukaryotes
  • These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
  • Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples
organisms are grouped by their number of cells
Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells
  • Unicellular Organisms
    • Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell
  • Multicellular Organisms
    • Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells
two types of reproduction
Sexual Reproduction

Involves 2 parents

Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE

Offspring DIFFERENT from parents

Two Types of Reproduction
two types of reproduction1
Asexual Reproduction

Involves a single organism or cell

Cell divides

Offspring IDENTICAL to parent

Two Types of Reproduction
genetic code
Genetic Code
  • DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms
  • All organisms contain DNA
  • DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work
growth development
Growth & Development
  • Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT
  • Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism
food requirements
Autotrophs can make their own food

Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis)

Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy

Food Requirements
food requirements1
Food Requirements
  • Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food
  • They must consume other organisms
  • Herbivores eat plants
  • Carnivores eat meat
  • Omnivores eat plants & animals
  • Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism
  • All require energy
  • Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth
  • Cellular Respiration
    • Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods

6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O

organisms respond to stimuli
Organisms Respond to Stimuli
  • Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce
  • Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life
  • Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.
living things evolve
Living Things Evolve
  • Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments.
  • Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells – life starts here
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • System
  • Organism
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biosphere