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Study of Biology. What is Biology?. Biology is the study of all living things Living things are called organisms Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals. Themes of Biology. Cell structure and function Stability and homeostasis Reproduction and inheritance

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Presentation Transcript
what is biology
What is Biology?
  • Biologyis the study of all living things
  • Living things are called organisms
  • Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals
themes of biology
Themes of Biology

Cell structure and function

Stability and homeostasis

Reproduction and inheritance

Evolution

Interdependence of organisms

Matter, energy, and organization

3

all living things share common characteristics
All Living Things Share Common Characteristics
  • Basic Unit is the Cell
  • They Reproduce
  • All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)
  • Grow & Develop
common characteristics
Common Characteristics
  • Obtain & Use Materials & Energy
  • Respond To Their Environment
  • Maintain A Stable Internal Environment
  • AS A GROUP, Living Things Evolve, That Is They Change Over Time
facts about cells
Facts About Cells
  • Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism
  • All cells contain living material called cytoplasm
  • All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell
more cell facts
More Cell Facts
  • Cells are complex & highly organized
  • Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs

e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars

more cell facts1
More Cell Facts
  • The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes
  • These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
  • Bacteria are examples
more cell facts2
More Cell Facts
  • More complex cells are called Eukaryotes
  • These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
  • Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples
organisms are grouped by their number of cells
Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells
  • Unicellular Organisms
    • Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell
  • Multicellular Organisms
    • Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells
two types of reproduction
Sexual Reproduction

Involves 2 parents

Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE

Offspring DIFFERENT from parents

Two Types of Reproduction
two types of reproduction1
Asexual Reproduction

Involves a single organism or cell

Cell divides

Offspring IDENTICAL to parent

Two Types of Reproduction
genetic code
Genetic Code
  • DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms
  • All organisms contain DNA
  • DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work
growth development
Growth & Development
  • Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT
  • Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism
food requirements
Autotrophs can make their own food

Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis)

Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy

Food Requirements
food requirements1
Food Requirements
  • Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food
  • They must consume other organisms
  • Herbivores eat plants
  • Carnivores eat meat
  • Omnivores eat plants & animals
metabolism
Metabolism
  • Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism
  • All require energy
  • Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth
metabolism1
Metabolism
  • Cellular Respiration
    • Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods

6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O

organisms respond to stimuli
Organisms Respond to Stimuli
  • Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce
homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life
  • Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.
living things evolve
Living Things Evolve
  • Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments.
  • Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms
levels
Levels
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells – life starts here
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • System
  • Organism
levels1
Levels
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biosphere