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Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches. English Methodology I UCSC-2008 Mg.Roxanna Correa. Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century). Nature of Language Systematic study of the prescribed grammar of classical Latin and classical texts. Language Learning Exercise mental abilities.

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language teaching methods approaches

Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches

English Methodology I

UCSC-2008

Mg.Roxanna Correa

grammar translation method early 19th century
Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century)
  • Nature of Language
  • Systematic study of the prescribed grammar of classical Latin and classical texts.
  • Language Learning
  • Exercise mental abilities
grammar translation method early 19th century3
Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century)
  • LANGUAGE TEACHING
  • Instruction given in mother tongue
  • Little use (of language) for communication in target language
grammar translation method early 19th century4
Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century)
  • LANGUAGE TEACHING
  • Teacher does not have to be able to speak target language
  • Focus on appreciating literature of target language and translation
some principles
SOME PRINCIPLES
  • Literary languare is superior to spoken language.
  • If sts are able to translatae from L2 to L1 they are considered successful lg learners.
  • Ability to communicate in the foreign lg is not a goal for teaching.
  • Reading are writing are the skills developed
  • Class are teacher centered
some principles6
SOME PRINCIPLES
  • Native language equivalents are found for ALL target words.
  • Learning is emphasized through similarities between L1and L2.
  • Sts learn about the form (grammar )of the target lg
  • Deductive pedagogical technique is applied for grammar rules.
  • LL provides good mental exercise ( use of memory is promoted)
direct approach
Direct Approach
  • 1886.The IPA is established Phonetics becomes an issue in language teaching. First true scientific contributions to language learning begins.
  • Reaction to the Grammar Translation Method
direct approach8
Direct Approach
  • Nature of Language
  • Everyday spoken language. Culture, history, geography, everyday life of TL speakers.
  • Language Learning
  • Associate meaning with TL directly
direct approach9
Direct Approach

Language Teaching

  • No use of mother tongue allowed
  • Lesson begins with dialogues and conversations
direct approach10
Direct Approach
  • Language Teaching
  • Grammar rules learned inductively
  • Teacher must speak the target language
reading approach
Reading Approach
  • Reaction to the Direct Approach
      • Reading is viewed as the most appropriate skill to have in a foreign language since many people did not travel abroad (from U.S.)
reading approach12
Reading Approach
  • Not enough teachers could speak target language well enough to use it for teaching
  • Only grammar is useful for teaching reading .
  • Emphasis on translation
audio lingual approach
AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH
  • WWII (1939-1945 )breaks out and U.S. military requires people to speak and understand foreign languages
  • The U.S. government hires linguists to help teach and develop materials
audio lingual approach14
AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH

THEORETICAL BASE

Linguistic and Psychology.Charles Fries (1945) led the way in applying principles from sturctural linguistics in developing this approach.

In 1957 principles from behavioral psychology (Skinner) were incorporated.

audio lingual approach15
AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH
  • NATURE OF LANGUAGE

Sentence and sound patterns

LANGUAGE LEARNING

Overcoming native language habits; form new target language habits.

audio lingual approach16
AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH
  • LANGUAGE TEACHING

Conduct oral/aural drills and pattern practice.

silent way
SILENT WAY
  • 1960 Chomsky argued the language acquisition could not take place through habit formation., but rather a rule formation
  • This method shares certain principles with the Cognitive Approach
silent way18
SILENT WAY
  • Nature of Language
  • Unique since it is the expression of a particular group of people.
  • Language Learning
  • Develop inner criteria for corrections by becoming aware of how TL works.
silent way19
SILENT WAY
  • Language Teaching
  • Remain silent in order to subordinate teaching to learning. Focus student attention; provide meaningful practice.
desuggestopedia affective humanistic approach
Desuggestopedia/ Affective - Humanistic Approach

NATURE OF LANGUAGE

Language is a process of communication and the factors which influence the linguistic message.

Meaningful texts, vocabulary emphasized.

LANGUAGE LEARNING

Overcome psychological barriers to learning

desuggestopedia
Desuggestopedia
  • LANGUAGE TEACHING
  • Desuggest limitations: teach lengthy dialogues through musical accompaniment, playful practice, and the arts.
community language learning
Community Language Learning
  • Developed by Charles Curran (1976). Influenced by humanistic psychology Carl Rogers (1951) and Brown (1994).
  • Nature of language:
  • Student generated
  • Language Learning:
  • Learn nondefensevely as whole persons following development stages.
community language learning23
Community Language Learning
  • Language Teaching
  • Include the elements of security, attention, aggression, reflection, retention, discrimination
natural approach
NATURAL APPROACH
  • An outgrowth of second language acquisition research, especially by Krashen (1981) and Terrell(1977)
    • listening recognized as a very important skill
    • listen and respond non-verbally
    • learners progress by being exposed to meaningful inputjust one step beyond their level of competence
natural approach25
NATURAL APPROACH

Nature of language

Vehicle for communicating meaning; vocabulary emphasized

Language Learning:

Listen; associate meaning with target language directly.

natural approach26
NATURAL APPROACH
  • Language Teaching
  • Delay speaking until students are ready; make meaning clear through actions and visuals.
total physical response
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
  • In the 60’s and 70’s research gave rise to the hypothesis that language Learning should start first with understanding and later proceed to production. (Winitz 1981)
total physical response28
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
  • NATURE OF LANGUAGE
  • The oral modality is primary. Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively.
  • Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized
total physical response29
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
  • Language Learning
  • TPR is usually introduced in the student’s native language.
  • Meaning is made clear through body movements
  • Main aim is to reduce the stress.
  • Students speak when they are ready.
total physical response30
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
  • LANGUAGE TEACHING
  • Initially the teacher is the director of all the students behaviour.
  • In the second phase sts demonstrate they can understand the commands by performing them alone.
  • After learning to respond to oral commands the sts learn to read and write
communicative approach
Communicative approach
  • Nature of Language
  • Communicative competence. Notions/functions

Authentic Discourse

Language Learning

Interact with others in the target language; negotiate meaning.

Ability to communicate in second language/TL

communicative approach32
Communicative approach
  • Language Teaching
  • Use information gaps, role-plays, games
  • Group and pair work is stressed
  • Authentic material use is encouraged
communicative approach33
Communicative approach
  • Focus in on meaning, not form
  • Teachers should be able to use the target language fluently and appropriately
content based task based participatory approaches
CONTENT-BASED, TASK BASED, Participatory Approaches
  • Nature of Language
  • Medium for doing learning
  • Language Learning
  • Attend to what is being communicated, not the language itself, except when form-focused.
  • Lear how to learn
content based task based participatory approaches35
CONTENT-BASED, TASK BASED, Participatory Approaches
  • Language Teaching
  • Engage students in learning others subject matter, tasks, or in problem-solving around issues in their lives.
leaning strategy training cooperative learning and multiple intelligences
Leaning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning and Multiple Intelligences.
  • Language learning
  • Learn how to learn
  • Language Teaching
  • Teach learning strategies ; use a variety of activities that appeal to different intelligences.