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APPROACHES AND METHODS. IN LANGUAGE TEACHING. Why do we study approaches and methods?. Provide teachers with a view of how the field of language teaching has evolved-developed. As a source of well-used practices (adapt and implement)

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approaches and methods




why do we study approaches and methods
Why do we study approaches and methods?
  • Provide teachers with a view of how the field of language teaching has evolved-developed.
  • As a source of well-used practices (adapt and implement)
  • Basic teaching skills are learned and teaching experience is developed
elements of method
Elements of method
  • Approach
  • Design
  • Procedure
  • Theories about the nature of language and the nature of language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching.
  • Theoretical principles
  • Basic features of linguistic organization and language use
theory of language three basic theoretical views of language
Theory of language:Three basic theoretical views of language
  • Structural view : Language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning.

The target of language learning is the mastery of this system;

- phonological units: phonemes

- grammatical units: clauses, phrases, sentences

- grammatical operations : adding, shifting, joining

- lexical items : function words, structure words

basic theoretical views
Basic theoretical views
  • Functional view: language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning.

It emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension

The learner needs to communicate about

ESP movement begins with a functional account of learner needs

basic theoretical views1
Basic theoretical views

Interactional view; language is a realization and interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals.

  • Maintenance of social relations
  • Interaction analysis
  • Information of interest to both speaker and listener in a situation of importance to both
theory of language learning
Theory of language learning
  • The psycho-linguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning
  • The conditions that need to be met in order for these learning processes to be activated
design the level of method analysis
Design – the level of method analysis
  • Objectives of a method

Primary focus on:

vocabulary, grammar, speaking, listening, culture

  • Syllabus model the method incorporates
    • criteria for the selection and organization of linguistic or subject matter content
    • Basic syllabus types

Structural, situational, topical, functional, notional, skills based, task based

design the level of method analysis1
Design – the level of method analysis
  • Types of learning and teaching activities

eg. dialogues

responding to commands

group problem solving

information-exchange activities


question and answer


design the level of method analysis2
Design – the level of method analysis
  • Learner roles
    • they plan their own learning program
    • they monitor and evaluate their own progress
    • they learn interacting with others
    • they tutor other learners
    • they learn from the teachers and other sources
    • The view of the learner as a processor, performer, initiator, problem solver
design the level of method analysis3
Design – the level of method analysis
  • Teacher roles
    • types of functions teachers fulfill
    • degree of teacher influence over learning
    • degree to which the teacher determines the context of learning
    • Types of interaction between teachers and learners
design the level of method analysis4
Design – the level of method analysis
  • Role of instructional materials
    • primary function of materials
    • The form materials take (books, videos, audios)
    • Relation of materials to other input
    • Assumptions made about teaches and materials
elements of method1
Elements of method
  • Procedure : classroom techniques, practices and behaviors observed when the method is used
  • Resources in terms of time, space and equipment used by the teacher
  • Interactional patterns observed in lessons
  • Tactics and strategies used by teachers and learners
approaches and methods1
Approaches and Methods
  • Is there anything worth in this technique?
  • How can I adopt this technique to my own circumstances?
  • What are the other ways I can put this principle into practice?